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Smoke Free In One Hour

Joan Chionilos is the person behind the smoke free in one hour program. She has been a hypnotherapist for more than 18 years. She has been certified by the National Guild of Hypnotherapists, which is the oldest and largest association of hypnotherapists you can find in the world, so she can be trusted. She has dedicated her entire career to helping people quit smoking for good with the use of hypnosis. With her expertise in hypnotherapy, you should expect nothing but results when you purchase her product. Her methods has helped lots of people all around the world quit smoking for good, your case will not be different. This is a digital product that contains one hour of professional hypnosis recording. Smoke free in one hour is an effective one-hour stop smoking hypnosis session. This hypnosis session works to eliminate your cigarette cravings at the same time it increases your willpower. It is available online for download for you to use at home. It is very easy to use. This program has been designed for anyone who is ready to quit smoking once and for all. All you need to do is to get comfortable, sit back, relax and listen to this recording. You will not regret your decision. Read more here...

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4165 Nicotine

In Europe, about every third or fourth breastfeeding mother smokes. Nicotine has been shown to interfere with the let-down reflex. Although ii does not appear to interrupt lactation once it has been initiated, smoking has clearly been associated with poor milk supply. Production has been shown to slowly diminish over the 6 weeks postpartum in smokers with prematures compared with non-smokers with prematures (Hopkinson 1992). Restlessness, poor suck, vomiting, and reduced weight gain have been observed in the infants of heavy smokers (survey in Lawrcnce 2005). Of coursc, more frequent respiratory illnesses are seen in connection with smoke inhalation. As yet, no permanent damage - with respect to either growth or functional development - as a result of being breastfed by a mother who smokes has been documented. Many studies indicate that mothers who smoke breastfeed their babies for less time. Here, social and psychological as well as physiological reasons (I.e. the antiprolactin-ergic...

12 Development and health

The care of pregnant women presents one of the paradoxes of modern medicine. Women usually require little medical intervention during an (uneventful) pregnancy. Conversely, those at high risk of damage to their own health, or that of their unborn, require the assistance of appropriate medicinal technology, including drugs. Accordingly, there are two classes of pregnant women the larger group requires support but little intervention, while the other requires the full range of diagnostic and therapeutic measures applied in any other branch of mcdicine (Chamberlain 1991). Maternal illness demands treatment tolerated by the unborn. However, a normal pregnancy needs to avoid harmful drugs - both prescribed and over-the-counter, and drugs of abuse, including cigarettes and alcohol - as well as occupational and environmental exposure to potentially harmful chemicals. Obviously, sufficient and wcll-balanced nutrition is also essential. Currently, this set of positive preventive measures is by...

From Here to Maternity

In this chapter, we go over what you need to know before you conceive. (We also provide some information on medications and vaccines that those who are already pregnant may be interested in, too.) The first step is to visit your practitioner and go over your family and personal health history. That way, you can discover whether you're in optimal shape to get pregnant, or whether you need to take some time to gain or lose weight, improve your diet, quit smoking, or discontinue medications that could be harmful to your pregnancy. We also give you some basic advice about the easiest way to conceive, and we touch on the topic of infertility.

Prenatal Care To Reduce Low Birth Weight

If prenatal care is to have an impact on the incidence of low birth weight, it must do so by reducing the rate of preterm delivery or fetal growth restriction. Although it may be plausible that prenatal care may be able to reduce the rate of preterm delivery, it would depend on the existence of effective interventions to modify risk factors for premature birth. One estimate is that less than 10 of all preterm births are preventable (84). The possibility of reducing the incidence of fetal growth restriction is even more bleak. At present, there are no proven interventions to prevent fetal growth restriction. Reduction in rates of smoking during pregnancy may be the only broad intervention that might have an impact because effective smoking cessation programs have demonstrated an effect on birth weight (85). Unfortunately, standard prenatal care has never been shown to have a significant impact on the rate of smoking during pregnancy.

What Should You Change

Men who smoke are likely to have decreased sperm density less motile sperm more abnormal sperm lower testosterone levels and children with an increased risk of developing cancer. The concentration of sperm among male smokers is 1 7 percent lower than among nonsmokers. Smoking nearly doubles a woman's risk of h aving a low-birthweight baby. Nicotine constricts blood vessels in the uterus, which decreases the

2114 Other antidepressants

Bupropion is an aminoketone antidepressant which acts on noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. The drug was developed as an antidepressant, but was found to support weaning from cigarette smoking as well. In the Bupropion Pregnancy Registry of GlaxoSmithKline (2006), 783 prospective eases with bupropion exposure during pregnancy are registered, 621 with exposure during the first trimester. The preliminary results have not confirmed

Mary Frances Picciano and Michelle Kay McGuire

Summary National surveys indicate that as many as 97 of women living in the United States are advised by their health care providers to take multivitamin, multimineral (MVMM) supplements during pregnancy, and 7-36 of pregnant women use botanical supplements during this time. Although there is evidence of benefit from some of these preparations, efficacy has not been established for most of them. This chapter reviews some of the most commonly used prenatal supplements in terms of the evidence for their need, efficacy, and safety. Specifically, MVMM, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, zinc, magnesium, and iodine are discussed, as are several botanicals. Data indicate that, in general, evidence for benefit gained from taking prenatal MVMM supplements is not well established except for women who smoke, abuse alcohol or drugs, are anemic, or have poor quality diets. Because of folate's well-established effect on decreasing risk for neural tube defects, it is recommended that...

9 Antipsychotic Effects On Pregnancy Outcomes

No medication regimen can be considered completely safe during pregnancy. By the same token, the added risk is often minimal and far smaller than the risk of the mother going untreated. Women with schizophrenia have been found to be at relatively increased risk for poor obstetrical outcomes, including preterm delivery, LBW, and neonates who are small for their gestational age (40). This may, in part, be the effect of medications but is, to a large extent, attributable to these women's relative lack of prenatal care, poor nutrition, alcohol, nicotine, and drug use, higher body mass index, poverty, and general lack of self-care.

148 summary and conclusion

In summary, although most pregnant women take one or more dietary supplement, there is strong evidence to support the efficacy of only three of these products during this period of the lifespan, especially for otherwise healthy women. These include folic acid, iodine, and iron, and published recommendations concerning these nutrients are provided in Table 14.2. Additional supplements may be useful in specific circumstances. For example supplemental zinc may be necessary for vegans and women who smoke, have poor quality diets, or are carrying more than one fetus should consider taking a MVMM supplement. Other nutrient supplements such as vitamin A may be warranted for poorly nourished women, especially those with comorbidities. There is very little high quality research on the efficacy and safety of botanical supplements during pregnancy, and extreme care should be taken when recommending their use during this time.

2213 Tobacco and smoking

Tobacco smoke is a mixture of different gases (primarily carbon monoxide) and a drop- and particle-containing phase in which the primary ingredients are water, nicotine, and the so-called tobacco tar (consisting of all the other ingredients together). Nicotine is the primary toxin in tobacco. A cigarette weighing 1 g contains about 10 mg of nicotine, of which about 10-15 (1-1.5 mg) is contained in the smoke. Nicotine is absorbed through the mucosa in the mouth cavity, the respiratory system, and the gastrointestinal tract. Only about 25-50 is absorbed through the mouth. When smoke is inhaled deeply into the lungs, absorption is about 90 . Nicotine has a half-life of 2 hours 90 of the nicotine absorbed is metabolized in the liver to hydroxynicotinc and cotinine (which has a half-life of 20 hours). Nicotine crosses the placenta unimpeded, and causes the fetal heart frequency to increase. Elevated placental levels are noted for the heavy metal cadmium (see Chapter 2.23), and also for the...

51 Epidemiology of Marijuana

Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug in the United States. Of the 6.8 million persons who are classified with either dependence or abuse of illicit drugs, 4.2 million are dependent on or abusing marijuana. This represents 1.8 ofthe total population 12 yr or older and 61.4 of all those classified with illicit drug dependence or abuse (8). There is a strong association between the use of licit and illicit drugs among pregnant women. A 1992 survey conducted by the National Institute of Drug Abuse examined licit and illicit drug use in 2613 pregnant women and found that among women who drank alcohol and smoked cigarettes, 20.4 also used marijuana. Conversely, of those women who said they had not used cigarettes or alcohol, only 0.2 smoked marijuana (42).

Costeffectiveness of interventions in pregnancy

Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) explicitly compare the costs and outcomes of new treatments with alternative treatments so that the treatments can be ordered on the basis of how much benefit is gained relative to the expense.13 CEA are being reported more frequently in medicine and specifically in obstetrics.14 Recent CEA in obstetrics have studied the value of fortifying grain with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects (NTD), prenatal HIV screening, smoking cessation programs and vaginal birth after Cesarean delivery. In general, these interventions have proven to be cost-effective or even cost saving because the treatments are effective and often inexpensive, the risk of adverse outcomes is high, the time to the outcomes is short and the cost of the outcomes is large. high-level fortification, suggesting that 4-6 would be saved for each 1 spent on folic acid fortification.15 Separate CEA performed in the US and the United Kingdom (UK) demonstrated that voluntary HIV screening...

Types of malformations

Studies on mild malformations in IDM and IGDM are relatively scarce,33-35 and no randomized double-blind investigations have been performed to date. The results of the case-control studies are contradictory, with some showing significant differences but others not. No association was observed between the severity of the metabolic derangement (HbA1c) in the mother and the appearance of mild malformations in the offspring.34,35 This was also true for White's class, duration of diabetes, maternal age, and cigarette smoking.33

494 Other antidepressants

A case report describes bupropion ( amfebutamon- half-life 21 hours), a drug with a serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine blocking action, which is also used for weaning from cigarette smoking. An M P ratio of up to 8, and a relative dosage (including the 50 effective metabolites erythrohydrobupropion, hydroxy-bupropion, and thre-ohydrobupropion) of less than 1 on average and 3 at maximum, have been calculated (Weissman 2004). Neither in this nor in two other cases was the drug detected in the infant's serum (Baab 2002). A more recent study of 10 mothers receiving 150 mg d for 3 days and then 300 mg d for 4 days calculated, on average, 6.75 jig kg per day bupropion plus 10.8, 15.75, and 68.9pg kg per day of the respective metabolites (see above) for a fully breastfed child. Considering bupropion only, the relative dose is 0.14 including its metabolites, this is about 2 (Haas 2004).

Clinical Decision Making

Our group has proposed and continues to refine a model aimed at minimizing infant exposure, as a guide to clinical decision making during the postpartum (Newport et al. 2001 Stowe et al. 2001). For example, if a breast-feeding mother is more likely to consume alcohol, smoke cigarettes, or take other medications (both prescription and over-the-counter) when she is depressed or anxious, these alternative exposures should be considered in the treatment planning. When treatment is indicated, the options for breastfeeding women are reasonably straightforward 1) use nonphar-macologic treatments, 2) wean and initiate pharmacologic treatment, and 3) continue to breast-feed and initiate pharmacologic treatment. Neither nontreatment nor delayed treatment is a reasonable option. Additional steps to minimize risk for the third option include the following

Degeneration and eugenic feminism

And stimulants, the ingestion of tainted foods and the prevalence of 'organic poisons' such as syphilis and tuberculosis. Although Nordau argued that degenerates would ultimately breed themselves out of existence, his book provoked anxiety and stimulated a public debate because the 'causes' he highlighted were so clearly visible in the modern world.6 They can be divided into environmental factors (low-quality, industrially produced food opiate and tobacco consumption) and hereditary ones (syphilis, tuberculosis and alcoholism were all thought to be hereditary). Of all these, syphilis caused the most concern, so that even a moderate commentator like J.W. Ballantyne was spurred into rhetorical mode when he came to consider the effects of syphilis on the unborn child. In his book Expectant Motherhood (1914), he wrote that syphilis brings long-continued disease to the mother and is a 'death warrant' for the unborn child 'even if the syphilitic child in the womb comes into the world alive,...

Eczema Atopic Dermatitis

Treatment and Outlook Because susceptibility to atopic dermatitis is believed to be inherited, there's no way to prevent a person from having the tendency to develop the condition. However, because specific triggers may tend to make it worse, flare-ups may be prevented or controlled by avoiding excessive heat, cold, sweating, emotional stress, contact with wool and other rough fabrics, and harsh soaps and detergents. It also helps to make sure the skin is not allowed to become too dry. Other substances to be avoided if they are aggravating the condition include skin care products, tobacco smoke, chemicals, foods, and other known allergens or irritants. Also, curbing the tendency to scratch the rash can prevent the condition from worsening and progressing to cause more severe skin damage.

Confounding Variables of Second Trimester Markers and Risk

However, smoking does affect individual Down syndrome marker concentrations and could affect screening performance. Patients who report cigarette smoking have 5 higher AFP, 4 lower uE3, 20 lower free P-hCG, and 62 higher DIA concentrations than nonsmokers (156). Total hCG concentrations are also 23 lower in smokers (108,157,158). Although statistically significant, the effects of smoking on AFP and uE3 are small in terms of the calculated risk of Down syndrome. However, failure to adjust the hCG and DIA medians will have significant effects on the calculated risk of Down syndrome. In triple marker screening, risks will be underestimated in smokers. In four-marker screening, the increase in DIA concentration in smokers will surpass the effect of the lower hCG values, and the risk will be overestimated. From a public health perspective, the overall detection and FPRs are paramount. The issue of smoking becomes a question of the net number of patients who are wrongly placed on one side,...


It has long been accepted that a woman who smokes during pregnancy risks damaging her unborn baby (Himmerlberger et al 1978). Smoking may reduce birthweight, affect mental development, increase the risk of cancer to both mother and baby and increase the rate of spontaneous abortion (Chatenoud et al 1998). The incidence of low birthweight babies is higher among mothers who smoke because smoking reduces oxygen and food supply to the fetus, slowing down its growth rate and possibly causing damage to its DNA. The effects can remain with the baby for the rest of its life, as reduced resistance to infection, impaired intelligence, shorter attention span, hyperactive behaviour and an increased susceptibility to disorders of the nervous system, respiratory system, bladder, kidneys and skin. The effects of preconceptual smoking in the father are less clear. However, if both partners smoke, there is a greater risk of having a low birthweight baby than if the mother alone smokes, and the risk of...

Alcohol intake

Research at Columbia University has found that a woman who drinks and also smokes has a four times higher risk of miscarriage (Plant 1987). Non-smokers who drink still have a risk two and a half times greater than that of an abstainer. Even a single alcoholic drink taken every other day increases the risk of miscarriage.

A time for change

The first few weeks of pregnancy may therefore have been a longer journey than you had imagined. You may have been struggling with changing your lifestyle perhaps trying to stop smoking or drinking. Sickness may have led you to telling lots of people about your pregnancy before you had planned to. You may have felt unable to do some of your usual activities and found yourself needing more sleep. Partners may have been taken aback by the changes in you and have had to take over certain tasks at home. Your life may be changing far more quickly than you had predicted. For both of you there may have been many surprises in terms of how you have reacted emotionally.

Mature motherhood

More likely to have reached a more senior position within her chosen career and therefore be more financially secure. She may also have taken the opportunity to have accessed and implemented pre-conceptual advice, such as taking folic acid, reducing her alcohol intake and stopping smoking.


By this time, the pregnancy is well established and you're feeling the typical signs and symptoms of pregnancy, such as nausea and fatigue. It's an important time to make any necessary lifestyle changes, if you haven't already done so (like stopping smoking or adjusting medications).

1433 Recommendations

The American Dietetic Association and the IOM recommend that all pregnant women who smoke or abuse alcohol or drugs take MVMM supplements as should those with iron deficiency anemia or poor quality diets 2, 16 . This recommendation also applies to vegans and women carrying two or more fetuses. The recommended amounts of micronutrients in prenatal MVMM preparations are provided in Table 14.1. Care should always be taken that intake from these supplements not result in consumption of nutrient levels above the ULs set for pregnancy.

2216 Stimulants

Among 65 children followed-up until 14 years of age, a significant number had learning difficulties at school. However, a large percentage of the mothers not only abused amphetamines during their pregnancies, but also consumed opiates and alcohol, smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day, and were in problematic psychosocial situations. At the age 14 years, only 22 of the children still lived with their mothers (Cernerud 1996),

2217 Hallucinogens

Marijuana (cannabis, Indian hemp, hashish), along with alcohol, nicotine, and ecstasy, is among the drugs most commonly used during pregnancy. The carbon monoxide concentration in the blood caused by marijuana is thought to be five times higher than that caused by tobacco, and the coal tar content in the blood is three times higher. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in marijuana, crosses the placenta and can lead to a decline in the baby's heart frequency. The rate of birth defects is not increased after using

2223 Chemicals

A slight acute exposure of the mother with transitory light symptoms like headache and nausea (corresponding to stages 1-2), or chronic exposure to CO (such as is measured in smokers who use one packet of cigarettes per day, or occurs with a concentration of 30ppm in a room or in city air resulting from a working place or environmental sources), is associated with a COHb-concentration of 2-10 in the mother and does not distinctly correlate with fetal damage (Koren 1991, survey in Barlow 1982). The fetus of a smoker, however, does not tolerate additional CO exposure its capacity to compensate might already be exhausted.


Human data are limited, and much of it is anecdotal but some studies suggest a decrease in the birth weight of exposed neonates (70). The most recent study on occupational exposure to cadmium was a retrospective epidemiologic study conducted by Berlin and co-workers (71) on female workers in a nickel-cadmium battery plant. When 157 children born to exposed mothers were compared with 109 children born to unexposed controls, no differences in mean birth weight were detected. Only smoking had a negative effect on birth weight in this study. Interestingly, it has been suggested that cadmium in cigarette smoke contributes significantly to the increased incidence of low birth weight in infants born to women who smoke. One of the main effects of cadmium toxicity is decreased absorption and metabolism of nutrients like iron in the gastrointestinal tract. Even though they may not significantly decrease nutrient absorption in the mother, low levels of cadmium may cause a significant decrease in...

10 Conclusion

Despite limited data on the extent of substance abuse in pregnant women, available information indicates that use spans all socioeconomic and racial backgrounds. Reports indicate that Caucasian women are more likely to consume alcohol, whereas minority women are more frequently reported to use illicit drugs during pregnancy. Women who smoke are more likely to use licit and illicit substances during pregnancy.

4167 Other drugs

Manfreda J, Ferguson AC et al. Breastfeeding and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999 153 689-91. Counsilman JJ. MacKay EV. Cigarette smoking by pregnant women with particular reference to their past and subsequent breastfeeding behavior. Aust NZ Obstet Gynecol 1985 25 101 Dahlstr m A, Ebersj C, Lundell B. Nicotine exposure in breastfed infants, Acta Paediatr 2004 93 810-16. Groner J, Wadwa P. Hoshaw-Woodard S et al. Active and passive tobacco smoke a comparison of maternal and child hair cotinine levels. Nicotinc Tob Res 2004 6 789-95. Hopkinson JM, Schanler H , Fraley JK ct al. Milk production by mothers of prema lure infants influence of cigarette smoking. Pediatrics 1992 90 934-8. Sett KF. Hale TW, Page-Sharp M et al. Use of nicotine patches in breast feeding mothers transfer of nicotine and cotinine into human milk. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003 74 516-24. Lindblad A. Marsal K. Influence of nicotine chewing gum on fetal blood flow. J Perinatal...

2238 Metais

Cadmium is widely distributed in industrialized countries. Besides occupational exposure, some of the most common incidents are exposure to tobacco smoke and to old and poorly coated cookware, and from ingesting shellfish and kidney. For example, using an old silver-plated pitcher for an acidic drink like lemonade can lead to acute gastritis (Miller 2004), while 2-4 ig of cadmium can accumulate in a one-pack-a-day smoker. Cadmium levels are significantly increased in placentas from women who smoke during pregnancy (Eisenmann 1996). In the past, most toxicologists have considered cadmium to be initially a renal toxicant however, evidence in both animal and human in vitro and in utero studies have demonstrated that the placenta is more sensitive to the toxic effects of cadmium than is the kidney (Miller 2004, Wier 1990). Occupational exposure is usually found in welders, and workers in foundries and cadmium battery factories. Two case reports identified cadmium intoxication in women who...

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