C Sexual Relations

(1) It has been suggested, but not proven, that premature delivery may be induced by the effect of oxytocin released during maternal response of organs, orgasmic contractions, and prostaglandin in the male ejaculate. (2) There are no restrictions on sexual intercourse during pregnancy except for those patients who have a history of ruptured membranes, vaginal spotting, or have been treated for preterm labor during this pregnancy. (3) Patients with a history of repeated abortions may be advised...

A Employment

(1) Many patients continue to work throughout pregnancy. Whether she can or should continue to work depends on the physical activity involved, the industrial hazards, toxic environment (chemical dust particles, gases, such as inhalation anesthesia), medical or obstetrical complications, or employment regulations of the company. (2) Activities that are dependent on a good sense of balance should be discouraged, especially during the last half of pregnancy. (3) Excessive fatigue is usually the...

EBowel Elimination

(1) Patients who normally had no problems with bowel elimination habits will usually experience little or no change in the daily routine. (2) Patients who have a tendency toward constipation become noticeably more irregular during pregnancy because of (a) Decreased physical exertion. (b) Relaxation of bowel as a response to hormone. (c) Pressure on the bowel from the gravid uterus. (d) Constipating effect of iron supplements. (3) To prevent or to relieve constipation, you should encourage the...

72 Personal Hygiene During Pregnancy

As a practical nurse, you have the opportunity to assist the expectant mother in attaining healthier patterns of living and to reinforce health-promoting behaviors. Skin care, hair care, breast care, dental care, bowel elimination, vaginal douching, and clothing are all important to the pregnant patient. a. Skin Care. The glands of the skin may be more active during pregnancy and the patient may tend to perspire more. Frequent baths or showers are recommended. (1) Baths can be...

102 Key Terms Related To Fetal Positions

Lie refers to the position of the spinal column of the fetus in relation to the spinal column of the mother. There are two types of lie, longitudinal and transverse. Longitudinal indicates that the baby is lying lengthwise in the uterus, with its head or buttocks down. Transverse indicates that the baby is lying crosswise in the uterus. b. Presentation Presenting Part. Presentation refers to that part of the fetus that is coming through (or attempting to come through) the...

Solutions To Exercises Lesson

Amniocentesis. Non-stress test. Oxytocin challenge test. Breast stimulation test. Contraction stress test (paras 2-10a, b, and c). 6. hemorrhage. Infection. Labor. inadvertent damage to the intestines or bladder (para 2-10a(4)(a)). 7 . identical twins (para 2-14b(1)). 15. monozygotic multi-zygotic (para 2-14c). 16. fraternal twins (para 2-14b(2)). 17. rubella. Diphtheria. Measles. Poliomyelitis. Tetanus. 18. Umbilical vein-is obliterated and becomes the round...

45 Characteristics Of Second Trimester Of Pregnancy

The patient develops a sense of well-being. Her body becomes adjusted to hormonal changes. The early discomforts of pregnancy have subsided. Usually, she has adjusted psychologically to the realities and inconveniences, which accompany pregnancy. Her fears have subsided, at least temporarily. She has passed the initial miscarriage stage she begins telling everyone she is pregnant. She develops a glow of pregnancy. b. Quickening is experienced. The patient actually feels life this act of...

64 Initial Prenatal Visit

Examples Medical Record Forms

The initial prenatal visit should be scheduled at the first signs of pregnancy. This is usually shortly after the second menstrual cycle is missed. Depending on where the care is to be given, the first prenatal visit may not be scheduled until after a positive urine pregnancy test is documented. b. The initial prenatal visit may be particularly stressful to the patient. Some patients may be anxious about the nature of exams and tests to be done during the visit. The pregnancy may have been...

111 Spermatogenesis Sperm Formation

Structure The Ovum

Spermatogenesis begins during puberty and continues throughout life. b. Millions of sperm are produced in a 24-hour period. This occurs in the seminiferous tubules see figure 1-10 . Primary spermatocyte diploid number Primary spermatocyte diploid number c. The process is begun by primitive stem cells, which are called spermatogonia and are found in the outer region of each tubules. Follicle stimulating hormoneis secreted by the anterior pituitary beginning at puberty. Follicle stimulating...

59 Changes Of The Skeletal System During Pregnancy

Uterine Size Weeks

There is a realignment of the spinal curvatures during pregnancy to maintain balance see figure 5-3 . It is due to the increase in size of the uterus and pressure on the abdominal wall. The patient walks with head and shoulders thrust backward and chest protruding outward to compensate. This gives the patient a waddling gait. b. There is a slight relaxation and increased mobility of the pelvic joints, which allows stretching at the time of delivery of the infant. 12 Weeks 20 Weeks 28 Weeks...

210 Assessing Fetal Maturity And Wellbeing

Fetal Maturity

Indications for assessing fetal maturity includes determining the appropriate time for inducing labor, avoiding prematurity, and guarding the high-risk mother. Varieties of tests of the fetus status are of value in monitoring the well being of the fetus. Evaluation of fetal maturity and well-being is essential in the management of the high-risk pregnancy. The following test may be used a. Amniocentesis. A method for assessing fetal maturity and well being. 1 Definition. Amniocentesis is...

Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Other Blood Borne Pathogens in Health Care Settings

Only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and possibly breast milk have been implicated in transmission of human immunodeficiency virus HIV , hepatitis B virus HBV , and other blood-borne pathogens. Blood is the single most important source of transmission of blood-borne pathogens in health care settings. Infection control efforts must focus on preventing exposures to blood. Although the risk is unknown, universal precautions also apply to tissues and to cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid,...

211 Components Of Fetal Circulation

Fetal Circulation Common Iliac Artery

As the placenta acts as the intermediary organ of transfer between the mother and fetus, fetal circulation differs from that required for extrauterine existence. The fetus receives oxygen through the placenta because the lungs do not function as organs of respiration in the uterus. To meet this situation, the fetal circulation contains certain special vessels that shunt the blood around the lungs, with only a small amount circulating through them for nutrition. See figure 2-9. The following...

212 Changes Continue In Circulation After Birth

Closure Ductuses Post Delivery

Fetal circulation after birth. Figure 2-10. Fetal circulation after birth. a. The umbilical vein is obliterated and becomes the round ligament of the liver. b. The umbilical arteries are obliterated and ultimately become ligaments. c. The ductus venosus is obliterated and becomes a ligament. Anatomic closure is completed at the end of 2 months. The ductus venosus is superficially embedded in the wall of the liver. d. The ductus arteriosus is obliterated and becomes a ligament....

27 Fetal Membranes

Structure The Fetal Membranes

Two closely applied but separate membranes line the uterine cavity and surround the developing embryo-fetus. Both membranes, the amnion inner membrane and the chorion outer membrane , arise from the zygote. As the chorion develops, it blends with the fetal portion of the placenta the amnion blends with the fetal umbilical cord. These deceptively strong, translucent membranes contain not only the fetus but also the amniotic fluid, and they are continuous with the margins of the placenta. See...

19 General

Cowper Glands Function

The male reproductive tract consists of external genitals and internal organs. These organs are located in the pelvic cavity see figure 1-8 . The male's reproductive system begins to develop in response to testosterone during early fetal life. Essentially no testosterone is produced during childhood. Resumption of testosterone production at the onset of puberty stimulates growth and maturation of the male's reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics. Testosterone is the male...

22 Principles Of Fertilization Conception

Sperm Cell And Ovum Cell

Fertilization refers to the joining together of the ovum egg and sperm cells. The ovum originates in the graafian follicle within the ovary. The sperm cell originates in the testes. The microscopic union of sperm and ovum increase in size more than 20 billion times from conception to birth. See figure 2-2 for union of sperm and ovum. b. During sexual intercourse, 2 to 5 ml of semen, usually containing more than 300 million sperm, is ejaculated into the female's vagina. By flagellar wiggly...

26 Functions Of The Placenta

Fetal Umbilical Placental Circulation

Being knowledgeable of the placenta functions gives insight into prenatal life and is helpful in providing nursing care to the unborn and the newborn. The placenta functions as a transport mechanism between the embryo and the mother see figure 2-6 . The placenta has many tasks it transports oxygen, nutrients, and antibodies to the fetus by means of the umbilical vein removes carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the fetus by the two umbilical arteries serves as a protective barrier against...

24 Sex Determination

What Determines The Sex Child

Chromosomes are small, threadlike structures within each cell that contain genes, which carry genetic instructions. These genes control the physical and chemical traits inherited by children from their parents. The inherited traits are color of the eyes, sex, height, and skin color. a. The female has 23 pairs of chromosomes. The pair of chromosomes that determined her sex are named XX. The ovum carries one chromosome from each of the female's pairs 23 chromosomes . The ovum can only carry an X...

23 Process Of Implantation

Events Fertilization

The morula floats in the uterus for 3 to 4 days, gaining in size and weight. At this time, the hollow fluid-filled morula, now called blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining. b. The outer surface of the blastocyst becomes covered with finger-like projections called chorionic villi. Chorionic villi aid in the process of implantation into the endometrium decidua . Villi also manufacture human chorionic gonadotropin HCG which signal the corpus luteum within the ovaries to continue production...

C Fallopian Tubes

Anterior Pituitary Gland Process

Each tube is about 4 inches long and extends medially from each ovary to empty into the superior region of the uterus. 2 Function. The fallopian tubes transport ovum from the ovaries to the uterus. There is no contact of fallopian tubes with the ovaries. 3 Description. The distal end of each fallopian tube is expanded and has finger-like projections called fimbriae, which partially surround each ovary. When an oocyte is expelled from the ovary, fimbriae create fluid currents that...

16 Facts About The Menstrual Cycle

Endometrium Cycle

Menstruation is the periodic discharge of blood, mucus, and epithelial cells from the uterus. It usually occurs at monthly intervals throughout the reproductive period, except during pregnancy and lactation, when it is usually suppressed. a. The menstrual cycle is controlled by the cyclic activity of follicle stimulating hormone FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary and progesterone and estrogen from the ovaries. In other words, FSH acts upon the ovary to stimulate the maturation of a...

14 External Female Genitalia

Perineum Bartholin After Childbirth

The external organs of the female reproductive system include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, perineum, and the Bartholin's glands. As a group, these structures that surround the openings of the urethra and vagina compose the vulva, from the Latin word meaning covering. See Figure 1-6. Figure 1-6. External female genitalia. Figure 1-6. External female genitalia. a. Mons Pubis. This is the fatty rounded area overlying the symphysis pubis and covered with thick coarse hair....

12 Terms And Definitions

Endometrium Perimetrium

These are only a few terms and definitions that will be used in this lesson. Other terms and definitions will be dispersed throughout the lesson. a. Broad Ligaments. Two wing-like structures that extend from the lateral margins of the uterus to the pelvic walls and divide the pelvic cavity into an anterior and a posterior compartment. b. Corpus Luteum. The yellow mass found in the graafian follicle after the ovum has been expelled. c. Estrogen. The generic term for the female sex hormones. It...

Subcourse Md0921 Obstetric And Newborn Care I Introduction

Obstetrics is the branch of medicine concerned with the management of childbirth. The ultimate goal of all workers in the field of obstetrics is to assist a mother to produce a healthy baby, with a minimum of danger and discomfort to both. Pregnancy is defined as the condition of being with child. To understand pregnancy, we must know how it begins, how the fetus grows in the uterus, and how it affects the mother. Today, more than ever before nurses play a central role in the planning for and...