Transplacental infection

If a pregnant woman is exposed to primary rubella infection, especially in the first trimester, the baby may be born with one or a number of serious clinical features, including deafness, retinopathy, encephalopathy, deafness or a heart defect. The risk of congenital abnormality is greatest if the fetus is exposed to infection during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy, and this is evident in 85 of such babies (Hull and Johnston 1993). The risk gradually reduces with increasing gestation and is...

Antenatal screening tests

It is at the booking visit that all women, regardless of their previous medical or family history, are asked to consider the various tests that are available to them. For some women and their partners the decisions are straightforward. For others, however, this may be the first time that they have even considered the possibility that their developing baby is less than perfect. This could be the first step along a rocky road for the small proportion of women whose test results are not what they...