Natural Menopause Relief Secrets
Type 2 diabetes occurs more often in women than men in the older age group. Whether menopause contributes to this difference remains unclear because the discrimination of changes associated with menopause from those due to aging is difficult. Any changes observed in individual women followed through menopause will be influenced by aging and, given the extended duration of the perimenopause, such studies are extremely difficult to undertake. No effect of menopause on fasting plasma glucose levels was found in women who became postmenopausal during the course of the Framingham Study.19 Similarly, there was no effect of menopause on fasting or on the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose, or insulin levels, in the prospective study of Matthews et al.20 Nevertheless, menopause is associated with many characteristics of the insulin resistance syndrome, including increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and accretion of generalized and visceral adiposity. Reduced lean body...
Women with Type 1 diabetes frequently go through menopause at an earlier age, in average age of 41.6 years than nondiabetic women with an average age of 49.9 years.33 Diabetes mellitus (DM) was found to be associated with an increase in uterine size in postmenopausal women.34 In addition, the relative risk of endometrial cancer in diabetic women is 4-fold higher than in nondiabetic women.27,35 The risk of endometrial cancer also increases with the use of unopposed estrogen in non-hysterectomized women36 and is reduced with the use of cyclical or continuous progestins.37-39 Women become more prone to urinary and vaginal infections during and after menopause, this problem is greater in women with diabetes.40 Over the course of 2 years, women with diabetes were 1.5 times as likely to have a urinary tract infection with symptoms and twice as likely to have one without symptoms as women without diabetes were. Both risks were higher in women who took insulin and women who had had diabetes...
Central abdominal fat is associated with increased insulin resistance.104 The effect of HRT on accretion of visceral adiposity remains unclear. While short-term studies have shown that it is preventive, longer term studies fail to support this finding.98 HRT reduces lean body mass and waist to hip ratio. However, this effect was rather small although statistically significant.105 In a study of young postmenopausal women of normal range body weights, previous use of HRT was associated with reduced intra-abdominal fat, but not reduced abdominal subcutaneous fat, sagital diameter, fat-free mass, total fat, insulin sensitivity or body weight.106 In a small RCT conducted on 57 postmenopausal women, adding growth hormone to HRT increased significantly lean body weight and reduced fat mass further more than that achieved by HRT alone.107 In overweight postmenopausal women with Type 2 diabetes, HRT reduced the waist-to-hip ratio but not the total fat mass.57
As mentioned in paragraph 1-6c(3), menopause is the cessation of menstruation. This usually occurs in women between the ages of 45 and 50. Some women may reach menopause before the age of 45 and some after the age of 50. In common use, menopause generally means cessation of regular menstruation. Ovulation may occur sporadically or may cease abruptly. Periods may end suddenly, may become scanty or irregular, or may be intermittently heavy before ceasing altogether. Markedly diminished ovarian activity, that is, significantly decreased estrogen production and cessation of ovulation, causes menopause.
For women of childbearing age, therefore, gout therapy is only a minimal issue. Gout is caused by an elevated level of uric acid in the blood and in the tissue. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Interval treatment between gout attacks with uricosurics and allopurinol aims to lower uric acid levels.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious psychiatric illness that occurs in 0.5 -1.5 of individuals in the United States (Kessler et al. 1994). For women, illness onset tends to occur during the reproductive years. For those affected, the disorder is a significant source of distress, disability, loss of life through suicide, and burden on relatives and other caregivers. Substantial evidence indicates that BD is a chronic condition characterized by high rates of relapse, suicide, persistent subsyndromal morbidity, and significant psychosocial dysfunction (Coryell et al. 1993 Dion et al. 1988 Gitlin et al. 1995 Goodwin and Jamison 1990 Strakowski et al. 2000). Prevention and treatment of this illness is particularly germane to women of reproductive age. Despite the undoubtedly great clinical importance of the female reproductive life cycle (the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, postpartum, breast-feeding, and menopause), remarkably little is known about its impact on the course and treatment of BD.
The aromatase inhibitor letrozole is prescribed to postmenopausal women with hormone-dependent breast carcinoma. Recently, letrozole has also found application in the treatment of sterility, in order to stimulate ovulation - for example, as alternative to ciomiphene. A recently published retrospective study on 911 newborns from women who conceived following ciomiphene ( 397) or letrozole (n - 514) treatment found no difference in the overall rates of major and minor congenital anomalies (Tulandi 2006),
The pathophysiology of bipolar exacerbation during the postpartum period is not understood. Proposed contributors to the destabilization of mood include disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and major withdrawal of steroid hormones after birth (112-115). The changes in reproductive hormone status are considered important in regulating mood, and rapid and steep decline in estrogen after delivery may trigger mood changes in vulnerable women regardless of their diagnosis (110,116). The efficacy of hormone replacement therapy for bipolar disorder during the postpartum period has not been adequately assessed (112,113).
Is responsible for maintaining the corpus luteuni of pregnancy. FSH and a mixture of FSH and LH have been used therapeutically. Human menopause gonadolrophins (hMG) and hCG are two of these mixtures analogs arc menotropin and urogonadotropin). These hormones are used for ovulation induction and for additional support of the corpus luteum. Inducing ovulation with gonadotroph ins can lead to multiple pregnancies of these, 5-6 involve triplets (Scialli 1986). Two publications report on a rare complex of multiple malformations and four cases of neuroblastoma in infants below 1 year, born of pregnancies involving exposure to gonadotropins (Mandel 1994, Litwin 1991). These findings were not confirmed in other studies, nor were other pregnancy risks or abnormalities in early childhood and pubertal development associated with use of these agents for ovulation induction.
Among the androgens available in drug form are mesterolone, testolactone, and testosterone. There is no indication for using this class of drugs during pregnancy. All of the earlier common reasons (i.e. psychosexual) for giving androgens to premenopausal women are considered outdated. Use of androgens to inhibit lactation also reflects outmoded practice.
If you're managing to get any sleep at night despite having a new baby in the house, you may find that you wake up drenched in sweat. Even during the daytime, you may notice that you perspire significantly more than usual. This sweating is very common and is thought to have something to do with fluctuations in hormone levels that occur as your body returns to a nonpreg-nant state. It's very similar to the night sweats and hot flashes that menopausal women get, due to a drop in estrogen levels. As long as the sweating isn't associated with any fever, it's not a problem. It goes away over the course of the next month or so.
And lactation are causal or accidentally associated with the condition. It is equally unclear whether these osteoporotic fractures reflect architectural deterioration of a previously abnormal skeleton or whether pregnancy and lactation themselves account in large part for the bone loss and fragility fractures, situations that may be compounded by low calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency. As reviewed previously, skeletal demineralization normally occurs during lactation as a consequence of the actions of mammary gland-derived PTHrP in the setting of low estradiol levels and is not preventable by increased calcium intake osteoporotic fractures may occur in some women during lactation when the demineralization is excessive or the skeleton is unable to tolerate the normal lactational losses of mineral. PTHrP levels were high in one case of lactational osteoporosis and were found to remain elevated for months after weaning 89 . One study, which followed 13 women with...
The postpartum period is characterized by a rapid shift in the hormonal environment. Within the first 48 hours after delivery, estrogen and progesterone concentrations fall dramatically. Because these gonadal steroids modulate neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathogenesis of mood disorders, many investigators have proposed a role for these hormones in the emergence of affective illness during the postpartum period. However, there appears to be no consistent correlation between serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, cortisol, or thyroid hormones and the occurrence of postpartum mood disturbance (Hendrick et al. 1998 Wisner and Stowe 1997). Although previous studies indicate that serum levels of gonadal steroids or other hormones may not be useful in identifying women at highest risk for postpartum psychiatric illness, these findings do not exclude a role for reproductive hormones in the etiology of postpartum mood disorders. It has been hypothesized that a subgroup of women...
Data from nationally representative surveys in the United States suggest that the median iron intake of nonpregnant nonlactating women is 12 mg day, and that of pregnant women is 15 mg day 81 . Inclusion of iron supplement use did not significantly influence these national estimates and underscores why many women will complete their pregnancy at a net iron deficit. While the samples of lactating women in these national surveys are small, the iron intakes of lactating women are generally higher than that reported for other premenopausal women, including pregnant women. This may reflect a combination of factors including the small sample size, the health consciousness and socioeconomic status of lactating versus nonlactating women, and treatment for early postpartum iron deficiency anemia. Bodnar 92 reported, using NHANES III national data from the United States, that approximately 10 of postpartum women have iron deficiency anemia. Among postpartum women of low household income, 20 were
Breast cancer is most commonly associated with postmenopausal women but is increasingly affecting women of child-bearing age. The classic presentation is with a painless, slow growing and palpable mass. Other symptoms include nipple discharge and breast skin changes. Late menopause
In nondiabetic postmenopausal women, HRT seems to have no increased effect on future diabetic risk. Gabal et al.46 reported no change in the age-adjusted relative risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women followed for 11.5 years. Similarly, in a prospective follow-up study of 12 years, Manson et al.47 noted no increase in the incidence of Type 2 diabetes among past users of HRT the relative risk (RR) in current users was 0.8 (RR 0.67-0.96). These findings did not change significantly after multivariate adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), family history of diabetes and coronary risk factors. Accordingly, one 10-year literature review found no compelling evidence for a reduced risk of diabetes in women treated by HRT.48 HRT reportedly contributes to the control of glucose levels. The Women Health Initiative (WHI) study, have shown that healthy postmenopausal women who took combined conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)49 or CEE...
Diabetes is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in women and event rates increase substantially after menopause. Older individuals with diabetes are more prone to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular complications than This risk is greater in women than in men. Many observational studies have shown that HRT reduces mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) by c. 50 however, this has not been confirmed in RCT. Two long-term prospective randomized studies, the HERS63 and the WHI,64 suggested that HRT may actually increase the risk of coronary vascular disease. This was particularly true during the first year after the initiation of hormonal treatment. Therefore, HRT is not currently indicated for the primary or secondary prevention of CHD. However, it is important to note, that, among younger healthy post-menopausal women, aged 50-59 years at baseline, a tendency for reduced CHD was observed during a 7-year period of CEE only treatment.65 In diabetic women...
One case-control study reported an absence of adverse effects of HRT on the risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarctions in diabetic women,71 and another 27 month observational follow-up study reported a positive impact of HRT, with fewer myocardial infarctions in estrogen-treated compared to untreated patients after percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA).72 A larger cross-sectional study on 623 postmenopausal women with diabetes showed that atherosclerosis, as determined by the intimal-medial wall thickness of the common and internal carotid arteries, was reduced in the internal carotid in both current and former users of HRT.73
Menopause and diabetes have independent and adverse impacts on microvascular reactivity, as measured by forearm cutaneous vasodilation in response to acetylcholine and nitroprusside. HRT was found to improve this relaxation response in both healthy and diabetic subjects.74 Another in vitro study conducted in patients with Type 2 diabetes given HRT for 6 months yielded similar results, demonstrating an effect of HRT on both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms of vascular relaxation.75 Other studies on vascular function failed to confirm beneficial effect of HRT. In short term controlled study no significant effect of HRT was shown during performance of isometric exercises or intra-venous infusion of vasoactive substances. However, mental stress induced blood pressure elevation, was moderated by estrogen only treatment in the diabetic patients but not in the nondiabetics.76 HRT also failed to reduce elevated levels of endothelin-1, a natural vasoconstrictor, which is...
Many studies show beneficial effect of HRT on lipid profile in postmenopausal diabetic women. Data from a large survey conducted between 1988 and 1994, presented a better lipoprotein profile and glycemic control among current HRT users postmenopausal diabetic women if compared to never users or previous users of HRT.81 Overall, HRT increased HDL cholesterol and reduced LDL cholesterol, LDL HDL ratio and lipoprotein-A compared to placebo or no treatment. Combined HRT had no effect on triglycerides.52 Recent data from the Diabetes Heart Study,68 related HRT use to a significant reduction of LDL cholesterol levels in Type 2 DM patients. Apolipoprotein A1levels are increased by c. 20 in diabetic subjects and can be reduced by HRT.82 In one study, short-term oral estradiol treatment of postmenopausal diabetic women increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its subfraction HDL2 and apolipoprotein A1, whereas low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B...
Evaluating type and mode of delivery of HRT is quite cumbersome. Whereas, some large RCT exists for postmenopausal women in general, only relatively small studies were conducted in diabetics. These too, are heterogeneous in the number of women included in the study, duration of treatment and type of risk factors being assessed. Timing of blood sampling during the study also carries a significant effect, especially in cyclical combined estrogen progestin regime, where differences may ensue between the only estrogen and the combined estrogen progestin phases of treatment. As for the nondiabetic population, effect may be changed by nature of the hormonal constituents and route of administration. Since the variability of the estrogenic component is limited, CEE or E2, most of the expected diversity will depend on the wide selection of progestins available. Transdermal hormonal treatment differs mainly by avoiding hepatic first pass of highly concentrated blood hormones characteristic to...
In women who are breast-feeding, the choice may also be affected by information regarding the safety of these agents in nursing women (see Chapter 5 Use of Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers in Breast-Feeding Women ). In general, SSRIs and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors appear to be ideal first-line agents, being nonsedating and well tolerated. These agents may also be particularly useful for women with comorbid anxiety or obsessive symptoms (Cohen et al. 2001). In general, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are less frequently used. Because they tend to be more sedating, they may be appropriate for women who present with prominent sleep disturbance. However, there are some data to suggest that premenopausal women may respond better to SSRIs than to TCAs (Kornstein et al. 2000). Given the frequency with which anxiety symptoms are noted in women with PPD, adjunctive use of a benzodiazepine (e.g., clonazepam, lorazepam) may also be very helpful.
In women of child-bearing age, osteopenia and osteoporosis are less common, but those with a family history of repeated fractures, prolonged amenorrhoea, and steroid use are at risk of worsening bone density during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This may increase chances of worsening post-menopausal bone health with risk of fractures in later life.
This is generally used on women who have regular menstrual cycles and whose hormone profiles are within the normal limits. Following natural ovulation, the woman will take gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, in the form of either a nasal spray or injection. The GnRH will prevent the pituitary gland from producing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH), thus putting the body into a temporary state of menopause. This is known as 'down-regulation' and may take around 2 weeks but can be longer. The clinic will monitor the process via blood tests and ultrasound scan.
Phantom pregnancies were frequently discussed in contemporary obstetric texts, where they were often linked with the menopause. In his Handbook of Midwifery W.R. Dakin noted that 'Such a state of things is most common about the time of menopause, especially in childless women who are anxious to become mothers . It is rather a delusion than a mistake' (p. 71). Such comments reflect the widespread and long-held view that such pregnancies were a form of wish-fulfilment the term 'delusion' was also used by one of the doctors who attended Joanna Southcott. What is distinctive about Freud's approach is the characterisation of pregnancy (real or imag
Therapeutically, estrogens are used in oral contraceptives, as replacement therapy during the menopause, and for treatment of some malignancies. Among the available substances are estradiol and its derivatives, ethinylestradiol (the estrogen in most of the estrogen-containing birth control pills), mestranol, estrone, conjugated equine estrogens, polyestradiol, estriol, fosfestrole, chlorotri-anisen, and epimestrol.
However, these rhythmical pulsations may be a source of pleasure to the mother. Oxytocin also has peripheral effects, notably dilation of peripheral vascular beds and increased blood flow without increased systemic arterial pressure. As a result, breastfeeding is accompanied by increased skin temperature not unlike that of a menopausal hot flash (Marshall, Cumming, & Fitzsimmons, 1992). New mothers often report an increase in thirst while breastfeeding, which appears to be closely related to the increase in plasma oxytocin (James et al., 1995). Women who have had emergency cesarean births (Nissen et al., 1996) or are under stress (Ueda et al., 1994) have significantly less oxytocin pulses during breastfeeding. Breast massage raises the maternal plasma oxytocin level (Yokoyama et al., 1994).
Natural Cures For Menopause
Are Menopause Symptoms Playing Havoc With Your Health and Relationships? Are you tired of the mood swings, dryness, hair loss and wrinkles that come with the change of life? Do you want to do something about it but are wary of taking the estrogen or antidepressants usually prescribed for menopause symptoms?