Cleft Lip Palate

A cleft lip is an opening in the upper lip that occurs on one or both sides of the lip. Cleft palate is an opening in the roof of the mouth either at the midline or on one or both sides. (The palate extends from the top of the upper teeth to the uvula, the little piece of tissue that hangs at the back of the throat. There is a bony hard palate, just behind the teeth, and a muscular soft palate, behind the hard palate.) Clefts can occur in just the lip or just the palate. Formation of the lip...

Cellulitis

Cause A spreading skin infection, cellulitis often begins in an area of broken skin like a scrape, cut, or scratch. It can be caused by many different bacteria most common are group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Symptoms Cellulitis typically appears on the face and lower legs. It begins as a small, tender, red, swollen area. As it spreads, the child may begin to feel ill. The child also may develop fever, sometimes with chills and sweating. Sometimes lymph nodes (glands) near the...

Whats in a Name

Which should you buy, the expensive name brand or the less-w w expensive store brand When it comes to over-the-counter medications and vitamins, price may be the only difference. Often the same companies make the national brands and the store brands. Consumers who buy the more expensive versions may be paying extra for packaging and advertising. Compare the labels of several brands, and ask your pharmacist for advice. ications (prescription or OTC) your child is taking that have been prescribed...

Reye Syndrome

Cause Reye syndrome is not caused directly by an infection but is the result of an infection-related injury to liver and brain cells. Nearly all cases are associated with a viral infection such as the chicken pox, flu, or an upper respiratory infection. The use of salicylates like aspirin to treat these infections appears to be linked to Reye syndrome. Symptoms Symptoms are usually preceded by a viral illness and include nausea, vomiting, lethargy, confusion, and rapid breathing. In later...

Varicella Vaccine

The varicella vaccine protects children against chicken pox a common viral illness that almost all children came down with in the past. Varicella causes the characteristic itchy, blistering rash and fever. Complications of the infection can include secondary bacterial skin and bloodstream infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. Prior to the introduction of the vaccine, chicken pox was a major cause of missed school for children and missed workdays for their parents. The vaccine is given...

How to Use This Chapter

Sooner or later, every child gets sick. When your child is sick, symptoms are the clues that guide you and your child's doctor in finding out what's wrong. Technically, the word symptom refers to what a person says he is feeling or experiencing, such as pain. The word sign refers not to the person's subjective experience but to something that can be observed and measured by a health professional, such as a fever or a heart murmur. Infants and young children are often unable to communicate their...

Common Illnesses in Child Care Settings

Children in day care are more prone to ear infections. If your child shows symptoms such as ear pulling, fussiness, or fever, contact her doctor. Conjunctivitis, otherwise known as pinkeye, is an infection of the lining of the eye, and it spreads among young children easily because they are often touching each other and sharing toys. Again, call your child's doctor if she develops eye redness or discharge. Rash-producing illnesses, usually caused by viruses such as chicken pox, spread easily in...

Fear of Contracting Disease from the Vaccination

Another common misconception that keeps some parents from getting their children vaccinated is the belief that a vaccine will give the child the disease it is intended to prevent. The truth is, it is impossible to get the disease from a vaccine that is prepared with dead bacteria or viruses or that is made with only a part of the bacteria or virus. The only risk of contracting disease from a vaccine comes from vaccines made from live or weakened viruses, like the oral (but not the injectable)...

Chicken Pox Varicella

Cause Chicken pox is an infection with the varicella-zoster virus. Symptoms Characteristic blisters usually appear first on the trunk and face and can spread over the whole body. Blisters may also appear inside the mouth, nose, and vagina. Some children have a few blisters others have hundreds. The blisters are about 0.2 to 0.4 inch wide, with a reddish base (dew drop on a rose petal). The rash is usually associated with moderate to severe itching. Some children have fever (usually mild),...

Emh

Enjoy them while they are little because they don't stay that way for long. from the KidsHealth parent survey plaques may cover the entire scalp. Redness and scaling can also involve the eyebrows, the skin behind the ears, and the creases in the neck and armpits. The scales may be thick and difficult to remove and may make combing the infant's hair difficult. The scalp itself underneath the crusting can become inflamed and reddened. The cause of cradle cap is not known, although the baby's...

How to Guard Against Choking

Even after children have teeth, certain solid foods pose a choking hazard. Until your child is four or older, depending on how well he eats, take these precautions Avoid small, hard foods. These include jelly beans hard candies nuts chunks of raw carrot, celery, or other hard vegetables popcorn and sunflower or other snack seeds. Remove seeds from fruit if the seeds might be eaten or inhaled, as with cherries or watermelon. Avoid or cut into halves or quarters other small, round foods. These...

Encephalitis

Cause Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. Acute infectious encephalitis is most often caused by a virus. Enteroviruses cause about 80 percent of all cases. Arboviruses, transmitted by insects such as ticks and mosquitoes, can also cause encephalitis. West Nile encephalitis virus is an example. Measles, mumps, chicken pox, and mononucleosis can sometimes cause encephalitis, usually a mild case. Rabies can also cause encephalitis. Although rare, herpes simplex virus, the virus that...

Anemia Hereditary

Anemia refers to a condition in which the number of red blood cells (RBCs) or amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the RBCs is below normal. Inherited abnormalities in hemoglobin may cause anemia it may also result from nutritional problems (see Anemia, Iron-Deficiency, in this chapter for more information), blood loss, and various other medical conditions. Two of the most common hereditary forms of anemia are sickle-cell anemia and thalassemia. Also called sickle-cell...

Asthma

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes the airways to tighten and narrow, resulting in coughing and breathing difficulties. The sensitive airway linings become inflamed (swollen and filled with mucus). The muscles in the walls of the swollen airways tighten and constrict, making the air passages even more narrowed and obstructed, so that it becomes difficult to move air in and out of the lungs. Doctors and scientists don't know the exact cause of asthma, but they do know that...

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD HD) is diagnosed in children who consistently display certain characteristic behaviors over time. The most common features include inability to sustain attention to tasks, impulsiveness, and hyperactiv-ity. These behaviors must be beyond the usual distractibility and impulsive behavior of children. Boys are more likely than girls to have the disorder, which afflicts an estimated 5 percent of the U.S. population. The causes of AD HD are not fully...

Pneumonia

Cause Pneumonia is a general term referring to an infection of the lungs caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In otherwise healthy children, viral pneumonia is most common. Viruses causing pneumonia include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza, influenza, and aden-oviruses. Among bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus), and Staphylococcus aureus are the most common causes. Since the introduction of the Hib vaccine, Hemophilus...

Scarlet Fever

Cause It is caused by group A Streptococcal bacteria that produce a toxin that causes a rash in some but not all people. Symptoms Onset of symptoms is rapid, with fever, chills, vomiting, headache, sore throat, and swollen glands in the neck. The tonsils and back of the throat may be covered with a whitish coating or appear red, swollen, and dotted with whitish or yellowish specks of pus. The tongue may have a whitish or yellowish coating this sloughs off, and the tongue turns deep red. The...

Eczema Atopic Dermatitis

Eczema refers to a number of different skin conditions characterized by itchy, red, dry, scaly, irritated skin that may become moist and oozing, and sometimes crusted and thickened. Eczema is sometimes called the itch that rashes because the dermatitis is triggered by scratching. The two major types are atopic dermatitis and contact dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis, sometimes called infantile eczema, is a common form of this condition, affecting 10 to 12 percent of children. Typically, symptoms...

Dealing with Annoying Habits

For years, hair twirling, nose picking, nail biting, and thumb sucking have been termed nervous habits. A better term might be comfort habits because these repetitive actions may calm the child. When children are stressed, the behavior becomes so automatic that they are often unaware that they are doing it. Although most habits seem fairly benign, they can cause social problems other kids may tease a child about sucking her thumb or picking her nose, and she'll naturally feel embarrassed....

Developmental Delay Mental Retardation

Typically children reach certain basic physical, intellectual, and social milestones within certain age ranges (see Chapter 17, Growth and Development). A child who does not reach developmental milestones within the expected ranges is said to have a developmental delay. In most cases, the delay has no obvious cause. But in others, the delay is a sign of an underlying condition. For instance, children with cerebral palsy or who are blind will have trouble with movement. Hearing problems may lead...

Bronchiolitis Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Cause An inflammation of the bronchioles, the lung's smallest air passages, bronchioli-tis is usually caused by a viral infection. The most common cause, especially during cold-weather epidemics, is respiratory syn-cytial virus (RSV). Other causes include mycoplasma, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, and some adenoviruses. Symptoms Initial symptoms include congestion, runny nose, and mild cough for a day or two. These symptoms are followed by gradually increasing difficulty in breathing...

Third Stage

After the birth of the baby, the third stage of labor and delivery is yet to come. What's left you might ask. The placenta is still inside and needs to be delivered. This usually takes about 15 minutes of weaker contractions. Not surprisingly, women tend to pay little attention to this stage. The baby is here, and the afterbirth is just an afterthought. Nothing really prepares you for the birth of your first child. It is an uplifting and spiritual experience but also a very stressful and deeply...

Intraventricular Hemorrhage Hydrocephalus

The blood vessels in and around premature infants' brains are fragile and prone to break or rupture. In most intensive care nurseries, babies born before 32 to 34 weeks' gestation are routinely screened for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), which refers to bleeding into the normal fluid spaces (ventricles) within the brain. Ultrasonography is the most reliable and easiest way to diagnose intraventricu-lar hemorrhage. The ultrasound scan (also called a sonogram) is performed right in the...

Staying Buckled

Using the car seat during every car ride may not be as simple as it sounds. Some babies scream every time they're put in a car seat, and many toddlers find ways to escape their seats soon after. What can you do First, resolve that you will always use the car seat, no matter what. And be sure you serve as an example by always using your own seat belt. Then try these ideas for your child's maximum comfort. Drive as little as possible. Station an adult in the backseat to reassure and distract your...

Interpreting Information

Once you have gathered all available information, you need to understand it as thoroughly as possible. Ideally, your adoption agency, if you have one, should help you evaluate the information without glossing over potential problems. It's also wise to consult a doctor to help you interpret the medical record. In many cases, for example, a family history of an illness does not mean the child definitely will get the illness or is even likely to get it. In some cases, it may be a good idea to...

The Head

Birth leaves its mark mostly on an infant's head the largest part of a newborn's body and the part that has usually led the way on the journey through the birth canal. The newborn's skull is made up of several separate bones, allowing the large head to squeeze through the narrow, rigid-walled birth canal. Because of this tight squeeze, the heads of infants born by vaginal delivery often show some degree of molding see Figure 4.1c , which is when the skull bones shift and overlap, making the top...

What Is Circumcision

Circumcision is the surgical removal of the cuff of skin called the foreskin that surrounds and covers the end of the penis the glans . The removal of the foreskin exposes the tip of the penis. It's difficult to know how often circumcision is performed on infant boys in the United States because most ritual circumcisions are performed outside the hospital. Circumcision rates also vary widely among racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The most recent estimates indicate that about two-thirds...

No Candy in the Medicine Cabinet

Never tell your child that pills are candy or that they taste like candy. Pills' colors and shapes often look like candy, and your child may just decide to help herself. Accidental poisoning from medications can be fatal, so be sure that your child knows that pills even vitamin pills aren't treats. you have any questions about how long to give your child a medicine, consult your pharmacist or your child's doctor. Nearly all medicines can have some side effects, so you should watch for adverse...

Yeast Candida Infections Thrush Diaper Rash

Cause A yeast infection appears in the mouth thrush or as diaper rash in infants and is caused by candida, a yeastlike fungus. The majority of infections are caused by one species, Candida albicans. Oral thrush occurs in 2 to 5 percent of normal new-borns and a higher percentage of low-birthweight babies. Diaper dermatitis is the most common infection caused by candida. Older children who have been treated with oral antibiotics or who have a weakened immune system are also prone to yeast...

Balanitis Phimosis and Hygiene Considerations

The Uncircumcised Penis

In newborn males, the foreskin usually has not separated completely from the end of the penis, making it impossible to fully retract or pull back the foreskin to expose the glans. It may take months or years before the foreskin becomes retractable, which allows the boy to clean the area of the penis under the foreskin. This occurs in about 90 percent of uncircumcised boys by five years of age. Infection of the glans and foreskin, called balanitis, is more common in uncir-cumcised males, but...

Convenience and Cost

Breast-feeding moms never run out of milk and don't incur the expense of buying formula. Those who breast-feed exclusively and stay at home with their baby don't have to wash or sterilize bottles, cool or heat formula, carry feeding supplies along on every outing, or run to the kitchen in the middle of the night. But if breast-feeding mothers begin to leave their baby at home, things begin to even out. They have to express and store milk, invest in equipment, and prepare and clean bottles. For...

The Importance of Latching On

Nursing experts agree that the way your baby latches on positions her mouth on the breast is the key to comfortable, productive nursing. Your baby should take as much of your areola the darker circle around the nipple into her mouth as possible, with her gums resting not at the base of the nipple but at least an inch down the areola see Figures 9.3a c . Milk is stored in reservoirs under the surface of the areola. When your baby sucks, her tongue presses the areola against the roof of her 9.2a....

The Sexual Organs

The sexual organs, or genitalia, of both boys and girls may appear relatively large and swollen at birth. This is caused by hormones produced by the mother and fetus, bruising and swelling related to birth trauma, and the natural course of development. In girls, the outer lips of the vagina labia majora often appear puffy. The skin of the labia may be either smooth or somewhat wrinkled. Sometimes, a small piece of glistening pink tissue may protrude between the labia this is a hymenal tag and...

Arms Hands Fingers Knees and Toes

The arms and legs of full-term newborns generally are all scrunched up flexed and held close to the body just as they were in the cramped uterus. The hands are usually tightly closed, and it may be difficult for you to open them. Touching or placing an object in their palms triggers a strong grasp reflex. Immediately after birth, many parents perform a quick finger and toe count and usually there are 10 of each. However, extra digits can form on the hands and feet. This occurs in about 10...

The Basic Baby Shopping List

Here's what you'll need early on to take care of your baby Crib, bassinet, or other safe sleeping place Changing table of some sort a pad on the floor or on a dresser can work well Clothing and receiving blankets First-aid and grooming supplies Nursing or feeding gear See Chapter 9, Breast-Feeding, and Chapter 10, Bottle-Feeding, for information. You may also want to consider these handy extras in fact, some people say they couldn't live without them Indoor seat...

Big Brother or Sister Is Watching

Although some experts say that sibling rivalry is inevitable, young children vary widely in how they respond to sharing the nest. Children age five or older, for instance, often seem to enjoy helping with a baby, at least some of the time. But at any age, preparing a child seems to help make the transition to sister- or brotherhood easier. Before your child knows there's a baby on the way, talk about the concept of families, and point out the siblings of your child's friends or cousins. This...

Professional

We hope you enjoy this McGraw-Hill eBook If you'd like more information about this book, its author, or related books and websites, please click here. Steven A. Dowshen, M.D. Neil Izenberg, M.D. Elizabeth Bass Jennifer Buccigrossi, M.D. Susan E. Cheeseman, M.S.N., R.N.P., N.N.P. Kate Cronan, M.D. Jennifer Hanlin-Xenakes, M.Aud., C.C.C.-A. Wayne Ho, M.D. Sharon S. Lehman, M.D. Robert G. Locke, D.O. John Loiselle, M.D. Michael L. Spear, M.D. Rhonda Walter, M.D. Joseph DiSanto, M.D. Jessica Donze,...