Treatment of the Erythema and Flushing of Rosacea
Close-up of the lesions in erythema toxicum neonatorum. The etiology is unknown but biopsy of the lesions show the presence of numerous eosinophils. It has been suggested that the presence of erythema toxicum is evidence of maturity. Figure 1.27. Lentigines are smooth, freckle-like, pigmented macules. They are usually present at birth, have a scattered distribution, and have been considered by some to be a manifestation of intrauterine erythema toxicum neonatorum. They usually disappear within 6 to 8 weeks. Figure 1.30. Another example of transient neonatal pustular melanosis in which the typical lesions are present. Note the vesiculopustular lesions and the brown hyperpigmented macules. The lesions of transient neonatal pustular melanosis are sterile on culture, and smears of fluid from the vesicles demonstrate neutrophils and cellular debris. There are few or no eosinophils, in contrast to the lesions of erythema toxicum neonatorum which reveal clusters of eosinophils...
In the harlequin sign (harlequin color change) there is a vivid line of demarcation which appears down the midline. The dependent side of the skin becomes flushed (erythematous) and the uppermost side becomes pale. If the infant is turned to the other side, the appearance of the skin reverses. It is proposed that this condition results from vasomotor Figure 1.23. Erythema toxicum neonatorum (urticaria neonatorum) on the back of a term infant. This is the most common rash noted in the normal term infant. It is not seen in preterm and rarely seen in post-term infants. It usually appears on the 2nd or 3rd day of life (rarely in the first 24 hours) and is seldom seen after the age of 14 days. It affects about 40 to 50 of full term infants and the condition is self-limiting. Lesions may be minimal or extensive. Figure 1.24. Another example of erythema toxicum neonatorum ( flea bite dermatitis of the newborn). The lesions most frequently present are erythematous and...
Miliaria rubra (prickly heat) is characterized by small discrete erythematous papules, vesicles, or papulovesicles which are surrounded by erythema. Lesions have a predilection for covered parts of the body where the baby gets overheated. It is important to unwrap these babies and avoid excessive heat. Figure 1.36. A close-up of the lesions of miliaria rubra. Note the clear vesicles and erythema of the surrounding skin. Figure 1.35. Miliaria rubra (prickly heat) is characterized by small discrete erythematous papules, vesicles, or papulovesicles which are surrounded by erythema. Lesions have a predilection for covered parts of the body where the baby gets overheated. It is important to unwrap these babies and avoid excessive heat.
Balanoposthitis causing erythema and swelling of the prepuce and glans secondary to inflammation. Balanitis is inflammation of the glans and posthitis is inflammation of the foreskin. This change is frequently due to Candida infection but can occur with Trichomonas or herpes simplex virus infection. Balanitis should not be confused with a meatal ulceration, which is usually seen in circumcised male infants. In infants with meatal ulceration there is superficial ulceration often resulting from ammoniacal dermatitis. These usually heal spontaneously, but meatal stenosis may result.
A 1982 case report described the effects of clofazimine exposure during pregnancy on two newborns (10). The first case involved a woman with erythema nodosum leprosum who was treated throughout gestation with clofazimine, 300 mg day, and prednisone. Rifampin was also used early in pregnancy. Oligohydramnios developed just prior to delivery after a gestation of uncertain dates. Thick, foul-smelling, meconium-stained fluid was present, and the placenta showed signs of acute severe amnionitis. A 2575-g male infant was delivered vaginally who appeared normal except for his skin, which was not excessively pigmented. Bilateral hydrocele and iron deficiency anemia were diagnosed at 14 days of age with fever of unknown origin occurring then and again at 5 months of age. The infant was doing well at 12 months of age. In the second case, a woman was treated throughout pregnancy with clofazimine, 300 mg day, for tuberculoid leprosy. A normal, healthy 3070-g female infant was delivered vaginally...
Abrasion of the nose ( sheet burns ) in an infant with hyperactivity due to drug withdrawal. At the present time hyperactivity is most commonly seen with drug withdrawal, but may occur in infants experiencing pain, congenital hyperthyroidism, etc. The abrasions and erythema generally develop over prominent body parts such as the nose, ears, cheeks, elbows, and knees.
Severe cutaneous reactions like erythema exsudativum multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome were reported as unwanted side effects of the combination sulfadoxin pyrimethamine. Therefore, use of the combination for malariaprophylaxis is not recommended, but the combination is used for treatment of acute chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria and as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for prevention of malaria-associated adverse effects during pregnancy in women living in malaria-endemic areas. Pregnant women suffering from resistant malaria forms were successfully treated with the combination sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (Philips-Howard 1996). Intermittent preventive treatment (ITP) with sulfadoxin pyrimethamine seems to be the most effective in preventing the adverse outcomes associated with malaria in pregnancy in countries where Plasmodium falciparum is sensitive, although the spread of resistance is affecting its efficacy (Newman 2003).
How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema
Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.