When should you see a gestational sac

Gestational Sac

Usually by 5 weeks LMP 3 weeks post conception a gestational sac will be visualized. However, virtually all clinicians know that menstrual dating is notoriously unreliable. Therefore the concept of a discriminatory level of hCG was developed. The discriminatory level of hCG was originally described in 1981.6 The initial report was with transabdominal ultrasound and equalled 6500IU L. This was updated in 1985 by Nyberg et al.7 to 3600 IU L. Transvaginal ultrasonography led to the level being...

An 8 Week Old On A Fallopian Tube Alive

Ectopic Pregnancy Weeks

The increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy seen over recent decades has occurred simultaneously with an increased incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease. This suggests a causal relationship (Figure 11.1). Improvements in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory diseases may now preserve tubal function in women who previously would have suffered from tubal factor infertility. However, more recently in Norway a fall in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy has been reported.1 It has been suggested...

Ovarian Cysts In Early Pregnancy

Pain Management Diagram

Women who present with lower abdominal pain or unilateral iliac fossa pain need to have a TVS in order to exclude an ectopic pregnancy. In the situation where an intrauterine pregnancy is confirmed, an ovarian cyst may be the cause of the abdominal pain. In a recent study in our unit, we reported that the prevalence of ovarian cysts of > 25 mm in the firsttrimester population studied was 5.4 the vast majority of these were incidental findings.25 The Figure 3.6 Flow diagram to illustrate a...