Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! More here...

Bump To Birth Summary

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4.7 stars out of 13 votes

Format: Ebook
Author: Citrine Joyous
Official Website: bumptobirthebook.com
Price: $27.00

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My Bump To Birth Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Freestanding Birth Centers

Freestanding birth centers have been described as maxi-homes rather than minihospitals. A woman labors, delivers, and recovers in the same homey room, where At birth centers, women usually go home less than 12 hours after birth, with follow-up care at home. Not surprisingly, a birth-center delivery is generally much less expensive than a hospital birth. Birth centers are an option for women with low-risk pregnancies who have already given birth without any problems and who are psychologically committed to the idea of having a low-tech, more natural childbirth. Although this may involve more preparation, especially in pain-management techniques, many women find this empowering. But freestanding birth centers may be hard to find at the time of this writing, more than a dozen states had no accredited birth center. Most states license birth centers. National accreditation is done by the Commission for the Accreditation of Birth Centers, an agency of the National Association of...

The role of the birth partner

Not that many years ago the place for the expectant father was pacing outside the delivery room. This trend was probably reinforced by the increasing medicalisation of birth over the twentieth century. However, there is a wealth of evidence to suggest that the presence of a supportive person (not necessarily the father partner) during labour improves the outcome in many ways. A birth partner is associated with, for example, shorter labours, less intervention and a more positive experience of birth. It also seems to improve the partner's attachment to the child. That is not to say that some partners aren't overwhelmed or troubled by the experience. However, despite all these positives, many partners feel unsure of what is expected of them and feel fearful about what might happen. Many birth partners now attend ante-natal classes or appointments with the mother-to -be and this will at least help to highlight some of the things that might happen during labour. As every pregnancy is...

Considering Alternative Birthing Methods

More and more women are expressing interest in nontraditional or alternative birthing methods, and more and more possibilities are becoming available. Certainly, the following options aren't for everyone, but knowing what's possible can be helpful. Natural childbirth usually refers to giving birth without any medications or anesthesia. (It's probably not the best terminology, because using pain medication doesn't make the birthing process unnatural.) The theory behind natural birth is that childbirth is an inherently healthy and natural process, and that women's bodies are made to handle childbirth without the need for medications. Natural childbirth allows women to have a great deal of control over the childbirth process and their own bodies. It emphasizes having the woman choose which positions are comfortable, how mobile she wants to be, and which techniques she wants to use to be as comfortable as possible. Natural childbirth can be practiced in a hospital setting, birthing...

Management Home birth

Home births are being given more encouragement now than in recent years. Women who choose to give birth at home have more personal control and more privacy, and are more comfortable in their own familiar surroundings, in an unhurried, relaxed environment. They feel safe and secure and have greater intimacy with their children and partners. A home birth allows for more emotional and physical spontaneity. Also, many women choose a home birth because they may have had bad previous experiences in hospital, or because they are more likely to know their midwife and so feel safer. Midwives have observed that women are less likely to need pharmacological analgesia at home.

Preparation for a water birth at home

Pools for water birth are purpose made and are supplied with thermometers. The temperature is usually around 36.5-37.5 C (i.e. just below blood heat). Women who choose to have a water birth at home will usually hire their pools independently. There are certain criteria that a woman has to meet before she would be allowed a water birth at home. These are Having a water birth does not necessarily mean actually having the baby in the water. Some women like to labour in the pool and then get out to deliver the baby.

What are My Options for Labor Pain Relief

Childbirth is not a test of endurance. In the age of modern medicine, there are now effective methods for the management of labor pain. Ideally, mothers should seek information regarding these options in the weeks or months before the due date, to allow time for informed decision-making.

Preface Child Birth

The New Art and Science of Pregnancy and Childbirth is written by prominent obstetricians in the KK Women's & Children's Hospital the largest maternity hospital in Singapore, which delivers about 12 000 deliveries each year. It is a new art and science because the practices today are based on the latest scientific evidence and not on old wives' tales any more.

Making a birth plan

A birth plan is a statement of your preferences for how you want to manage your labor and delivery. It's about educating yourself about your options and feelings, rather than making hard and fast I absolutely will won't decisions. It involves sorting through things like where you want to deliver, who you want to have with you during the process, and how you want to manage any pain you may experience. It can be something you simply sort out in your mind and convey verbally, or it can be something you put in writing. No matter how you develop your plan, make sure you discuss your wishes with your provider well in advance of the big day because obstetric practices vary widely by provider and hospital. For example, some hospitals have rules about fetal heart monitoring during labor. The most important part of a birth plan be it written or verbal is to provide a platform that fosters an open discussion between you and your provider about your preferences wherever there is a choice. If you...

Home births

Deciding to have your baby at home may not be met with a great deal of enthusiasm by your family or the professionals. Only a very small proportion of women have their babies at home and it is not recommended as a standard option for all mothers, especially first-timers. It has been assumed in recent years that hospital is the safest place to have a baby but is this correct Increasingly, evidence is growing to show that home birth, in an uncomplicated pregnancy, is at the very least no more risky than hospital delivery which carries with it different sorts of risk. Many doctors do not encourage first-time mothers to give birth at home. You may have problems convincing those around you too that it is a good idea. Seeking help and advice from the local midwives might be a good starting point. As one of these will be delivering you, it is important to feel reassured that they are supportive. Other organisations such as the National Childbirth Trust (NCT) may be able to offer advice and...

Handling Labor Pain

During labor's first stage, pain is caused by contractions of the uterus and dilation of the cervix. The pain may feel like severe menstrual cramps at first. But in labor's second stage, the stretching of the birth canal as the baby passes through it adds a different kind of pain often a feeling of great pressure on the lower pelvis or rectum. But none of this pain needs to be excruciating, thanks to well-practiced breathing and relaxation exercises and, in many cases, modern anesthesia. Most practitioners acknowledge that even for women who have diligently attended childbirth classes, labor is inherently painful. The degree of pain and the willingness and ability to tolerate it varies from woman to woman. Some women choose to deal with the pain on their own or with the help of breathing and distraction techniques mastered in childbirth classes and that's a perfectly acceptable choice. Many other women want medication to help them deal with the pain, no matter how well-prepared they...

Water Birth

Du ring a water birth, and the baby can be monitored. It Is a low-tech way of co nd uctl ng I a bo r a nd I ead s to fewer I nterventi on s , b ut I I ttl e re sea rch ha s A water birth Is not considered suitable breech or you have mild preeclampsia (see page 9 6). Water birth might not be a dvlsab I e I f e ither you o r yo u r baby need trea tment I t has been more than

What is Labor Pain

With the onset of the first stage of labor, the pain is caused by regular contraction and stretching of the womb and cervix that serves to open the cervix. This stage may last from 8 to 12 hours for first-time mothers. The second stage of labor begins when the baby descends through the birth canal, aided by the mother's pushing. Labor pain is not constant, but increases in intensity and frequency with the progress of labor. Different women perceive labor pain differently. This perception may be influenced by the woman's previous labor experience, duration of the labor and the use of drugs to accelerate the progress of labor.

Birthing Positions

Do the different birthing positions like on all fours, squatting and birth stools help in the delivery the rare complication of the baby's shoulder being stuck in the birth canal (shoulder dystocia) after his her head is delivered. This life-threatening emergency needs the obstetrician to perform maneuvers to save the baby and the semi-recumbent position is best for such maneuvers. Some mothers may prefer to deliver in the squatting position as gravity might assist the delivery process. The use of a birthing chair or stool is recommended for giving birth in a squatting position. However, using a birthing chair has its drawbacks. It may cause excessive tearing of the perineum. This happens when the baby's head puts extra pressure on the perineum. While the tear is not a serious problem, it might lead to more discomfort and a longer healing time. Unfortunately, there have not been conclusive studies to look into the advantages and risks of the different birthing positions. Thus, it is...

The beginning of our journey

My own journey into pregnancy and childbirth began many years before I had children myself. As a newly qualified clinical psychologist, in my first job, I saw many women who were distressed and struggling with their life and so often their problems were to do with the struggle of being a parent. As one father said to me, 'Why doesn't someone write a rule book and just make it easier for all of us ' Well, I soon realised that there was no rule book but many common themes did emerge the juggling of responsibilities, the loneliness of women cut off from their former life, the sense of losing your identity and balancing your adult needs against the usually more immediate needs of your baby. We can learn a great deal from Sylvia's experience about the sort of care and support that women need when they have a baby. It is important to understand what is happening to you and your baby throughout your pregnancy and childbirth. Medical professionals involved in your care should explain exactly...

Conception the other side of family planning

So the decision is made in a number of different ways but some trends do seem to be emerging. The age of first-time mothers appears to be getting older. The delaying of childbirth into the late twenties and thirties may partly be due to this sense that we can produce a baby on demand. However, statistically, fertility falls off rapidly in the thirties, especially after 35. Current trends to 'time' pregnancies around our social needs do therefore have associated risks. For the vast majority, family planning works very well in that parents can choose to time their conception when they feel emotionally and financially ready to have a child. However, the biological clock is ticking if you don't become pregnant quickly, and your age may well turn the situation into a problem.

What does it mean to be a mother Changes for women

The role of 'mother' is therefore ever changing and this uncertainty for society about what exactly a mother is can make it more difficult for the individual woman to assume the role. This may add to or generate a sense of insecurity in late pregnancy. What exactly does it mean to become a mother Is a mother someone who works outside of the home Do mothers go clubbing Do they instinctively know how to care for a newborn baby In effect, women construct for themselves the role of 'mother', being influenced both by the wider society and their own needs, preferences and responses to their baby. Your early interactions with the baby will shape your perception of yourself as a mother if your baby is born of very low birth weight your experience will be very different to a mother who gives birth to a 9 lb baby. Your view of yourself as a mother is not static it will change as you have good times and bad times and as your child displays different needs and demands.

What do the contractions feel like Learning new skills for pregnancy and birth

Usually begin in the third trimester. Chapter 5 will look at labour and birth in more detail but it is never too early to start researching what types of classes are available locally. Your midwife or GP should be able to help with this. (See also the'Who can help ' section on p. 67.) There is enormous variation in what classes are offered. Most NHS maternity services will offer classes run by midwives and health visitors. There are also organisations such as the National Childbirth Trust that run classes. You may be able where time, finances and availability allow, to attend more than one type.

For parenting classes

For those particularly interested, the National Childbirth Trust (NCT) run parenting classes in most areas. These classes tend to take a more informal and less medical approach. The NCT also runs a number of groups and events to support new mothers. If you don't have time for their ante-natal classes they can still put you in touch with other new mothers, so it is worth thinking about becoming a member of your local organisation.

So what exactly is a domino The choices and decisions surrounding birth

During pregnancy your ideas will have begun to form about where and how you would like to give birth. Some women will have strong ideas and expectations from the start whereas others will feel confused and uncertain about what the choices are. It is not the purpose of this book to cover these in detail and certainly services are very different from one area to another. Your GP will initially outline what the local services are and your midwife will be able to explain these in more depth when you have your initial 'booking' appointment. These 'choices' are driven to some extent by what is available locally.

The politics of birth

In the latter half of the twentieth century it was argued that birth had become over-medicalised and under the control of (usually male) doctors. This led to the growth of women's movements such as the National Childbirth Trust (formerly the Natural Childbirth Trust) which campaigns to increase women's choices and offers support and information to pregnant women with the aim of avoiding unnecessary intervention. In this country the control of childbirth has been fought over for centuries. The growth of the medical profession in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries led to control moving into the hands of men and out of those of local women. Developments such as the invention of forceps in the nineteenth century and the use of morphine needed the medical practitioner to administer them. Gradually, therefore, the hospital became the safe place to give birth with the doctor present to oversee. If you go into hospital, medical intervention is available, should complications occur....

Has it really started Stages of labour

Order for your baby to be born your cervix, which is the neck of the womb, needs to soften and open to allow the baby's head to pass through into the birth canal. This first stage of labour lasts until you are 'fully dilated' this is where the cervix has expanded to about 10 cms. Stage 1 can last a couple of hours or 10 15 hours in a first labour. However, your first stage may appear even longer since you are only said to be 'in labour' when your cervix has reached 2 3 cms dilated. So in fact you may feel as though you are in labour for some time only to be told that it hasn't yet started.

3Is it common to have aches and pains in pregnancy

During the course of your pregnancy, there is an increased elasticity of the ligaments of your birth canal to prepare you for natural vaginal delivery. However, the associated increase in motion and instability can result in pain. The affected joints commonly involve the lower back (sa-cro-iliac joints) and pelvis (pubic symphysis). Occasionally, as the baby grows bigger, you may even experience some discomfort in your lower rib cage.

Feeling involved in your labour

Pregnancy through consultation with your midwife and through attending ante-natal classes you will begin to form some sort of idea about what you might do, however, probably most decisions are made in labour depending on the particular experience of labour that you have. You will also get lots of advice from other women with the birth experience being so intense people can often be very convinced that what was right for them is right for you. People will tell you that 'You must have an epidural ' or 'You should avoid all drugs because they make you feel so out of control.' It is useful to listen to other women's stories but it is hard sometimes to assess them objectively. Some women may be clear from the outset I don't want any drug intervention or a water birth is how I would like the baby born.When you actually go into labour you might feel quite different. That TENS machine that you practised with so avidly may seem far too fussy and to be getting in the way. Your partner may have...

Thats not what I wanted

Throughout this book childbirth has been discussed as a life event, a time of significant change for you and those around you. How we deal with change and the unexpected is significant in terms of how we survive emotionally. The ability to be flexible is therefore important. Trying to approach labour with an idea about what you do and don't want is important but more important is the ability to accept the unexpected and adapt your thinking. Is it really a failure if you have an injection to induce labour Once it has happened, it is important to move on and concentrate on staying involved in the situation. wrong, others will insist that it is unsafe to give birth at home or without constantly being strapped to a monitor. It is important to get information but then to make your own decisions in the light of your own labour. If you have a two-hour first stage then you won't be having an epidural, if you have been in first stage for 24 hours it may be medically essential to speed up the...

Ive done it all beforeor Oh no not again

So far we have been emphasising first labours and the thoughts and emotions that go with it. However, this may not be your first pregnancy and therefore your feelings may seem very different. Second or third time around mothers usually feel that they have far less time to think about what is happening and have spent far less time concentrating on this pregnancy than they did first time around. You may have also encountered the attitude from others that 'you've been through it all before' and therefore you should 'know what to do'. It shouldn't be forgotten that every pregnancy is different and so too is every labour. Statistically it might be true that subsequent labours tend to be shorter but that doesn't necessarily mean it will be easier. You may feel much more tired and less focused on giving birth than you did before and you may feel preoccupied with existing responsibilities. Many women approach the situation with unpleasant memories from the previous labour and perhaps are...

Stillbirth and neonatal loss

It is almost impossible to imagine the grief of parents who have lost their baby. Around 1 per cent of pregnancies end in the loss of the baby either the baby dies later in pregnancy, during birth or in the first month of life. Often the reasons are never clearly known, especially where the baby dies late in the pregnancy. Sometimes there are concerns during the pregnancy about the viability of the baby once he has left the womb but, more often than not, the child dies before, during or shortly after the birth without warning. The most common causes of death are serious congenital abnormalities or very premature birth. Some women have the trauma of having to give birth to the baby knowing that he has already died. Sometimes the death occurs in labour, for example, because the cord is around the baby's neck when he enters the birth canal. However the baby is lost, the impact can be profound and long-lasting.

A time of intense and rapid adjustment

Often books on pregnancy seem to trail off after the sections on childbirth and perhaps many parents-to-be are not interested in reading much further during pregnancy. However, it does seem important to emphasise that the emotional experience of those first few days may be very intense. The labour and the birth of the baby are an important part of the transition to parenthood but only a part. A time of high emotion and rapid adjustment continues in those first few days. It would be wrong, however, to give the impression that this is necessarily a negative experience. The difficulties are almost always outweighed by the joys. What is remarkable is to see a woman who, in labour, was feeling intensely distressed, half-an-hour after the baby is born sitting contentedly holding the baby as if she had been doing it for years. Two hours later the same woman may be in tears at her struggle to 'latch the baby on' to the breast. The first few days are about all of these conflicting feelings,...

What can newborn babies do

In recent years as research techniques have improved we have become much more aware of the capabilities of newborn babies. We have known for a long time that babies are born with primitive reflexes. Clearly the sucking and rooting reflexes are crucial to a baby's survival. If you stroke a baby's cheek he will turn his head and start to suck. Babies can hear from birth but remarkably they quite quickly learn to recognise their mother's voice from others. They are able to focus on objects at a certain distance, this distance being roughly that between them and their mother's face during feeding. Quite quickly too they are able to discriminate their mother's face from others. It is perhaps important to remember when you are finding it a struggle, that your baby is primed to get what he needs i.e. to feed and also to develop a relationship with you. So he will be helping out too babies appear almost programmed to develop relationships. Most of their early behaviour crying, making eye...

Puerperal or postpartum psychosis

Very few books on pregnancy and childbirth will have a section on puerperal psychosis.This is possibly because it is so rare, affecting only around 1 2 mothers in every thousand. Probably there is a feeling that discussing it might frighten prospective mothers unnecessarily. There used to be a similar attitude to post-natal depression that it was best not mentioned to mothers. This leaves problems somewhat shrouded in mystery and women who do have these problems are left to feel shameful about what has happened.

What about the future

Recovery for women with a post-natal psychosis is generally better than for someone experiencing a non-birth-related psychotic illness. However, hospital admissions will run into a number of weeks or months. The prognosis is better where you have only had a psychosis once following childbirth and you have no family history of similar psychiatric problems.With regard to further problems, there is probably around a 1-in-5 chance of this happening again in subsequent pregnancies and the risk is higher if you have had a psychotic illness before. For all women, however, careful support and monitoring are recommended around any future pregnancies.

Interacting exploring and learning

Feeding initially fills most of the baby's wakeful periods but gradually the baby becomes more alert and is beginning to explore his environment. His tiny movements seem totally random but are in fact tiny steps in his development. As mentioned in the previous chapter, from a very early age your baby is able to recognise your face and your voice. Attachment is a two-way process and the baby is primed to develop a relationship with someone who will love and take care of him. One of the first things a baby learns to do is to make eye contact and then to imitate facial gestures. If you hold your face close to your baby's and open your eyes and mouth widely as if surprised, an awake and alert baby will try to copy you (see Murray and Andrews, 2000, for amazing photographic evidence of newborn babies'capabilities). Also in the first six weeks, you will probably see the first social smile babies will get their features into a 'smile' from birth but this is different from a smile that was...

What does it feel like

In terms of symptoms, post-natal depression (PND) may be experienced in a number of different ways but characterised by the persistent low mood that is common to depression at any time.The most common symptom is to feel tearful and easily upset. For other women it may be irritability and mood changes that are troubling them. Often these emotions are linked to how the new mother is feeling about herself as a mother she may lack confidence, feel useless and compare herself negatively to others. In Chapter 4, the 'biological' symptoms of depression were highlighted and these are common in PND changes in appetite, sleep problems and lack of energy, poor concentration and feeling unable to cope with the care of the baby and the usual daily tasks. Clearly, in the early days, after having a baby some of these problems can be mistaken for just the normal struggles of having a new baby. I have seen many women who have terrible sleep problems but attribute it all to 'getting up to the baby'....

Is it different from depression at any other time

Statistically, depression is fairly common for women being at home not working and looking after children are two strong 'risk factors' for developing depression. So is there anything different about 'post-natal' depression Depression in the year following childbirth is fairly common but many young women of a similar age will also be depressed. However, women seem to be much more likely to get depressed at around six weeks after the birth of their baby, which does suggest that there are factors specific to those first few weeks that put you at risk for depression. As has been said, around 10 per cent of mothers will become depressed at this point but rates of depression do seem to peak again at points later in the

What causes postnatal depression

As with depression at any point in the life cycle, there are a range of ideas about what causes PND, including biological factors, social and life factors and things to do with your psychological make-up. There seems to be a range of factors that might cause a woman to become depressed after having a baby and these factors are different for each new mother. The enormous physical and hormonal changes associated with pregnancy and childbirth may be a factor for some women. There are also genetic aspects to depression if close relatives have suffered from depression, this makes your risks of experiencing it higher. Also if you have been depressed before, then the transition to parenthood may be another event that triggers depression.

What are Some of The Issues That can Be Considered

Not everyone needs or wants a formal and written birth plan. What is important is that you should have a detailed discussion with your doctor in the antenatal period regarding the process of labor, methods of pain relief and any other concerns. This will make the childbirth more meaningful for you and your partner. A birth plan might address some of these issues Would you prefer a certain position in which to give birth semi-sitting standing kneeling Would you like to hold onto the baby immediately after giving birth

Managing anxiety and depression

The journey through pregnancy and into parenthood brings with it psychological risks. The previous chapters have outlined different types of psychological difficulties mothers might experience and why. The emphasis of this book has been about trying to prevent problems by being more aware and informed about the emotional pressures that you might experience when you embark upon having a family. However, for some women the events of pregnancy and childbirth will lead to significant levels of anxiety or depression or these may have been around for most of your life. Each chapter has tried to highlight issues specific to problems at that stage such as the reasons for depression in pregnancy what follows here are some general points about dealing with these problems whenever they occur.

Frequently Asked Questions

Engagement is the movement of your baby's head into the pelvis. It occurs at the end of your pregnancy. Your baby is considered engaged when the head has descended below the pelvic bone. In primips (first time mothers), engagement typically occurs before labor. In multips (those who have delivered before), the baby may not engage until the start of labor. During engagement, your abdomen may seem smaller as the baby enters your birth canal. You may also feel some aches or heaviness in your pelvic joints and perineum as well.

1Vaginal candidiasis moniliasis or thrush

This is a common and frequently distressing fungal infection for many women during pregnancy. It does not harm the baby during pregnancy or childbirth. Having vaginal thrush can cause extreme itch and clumps of white discharge. Because of the hormonal changes, pregnant women often get thrush, especially during the third trimester of pregnancy. Fortunately, it does not cause the baby any harm and can be easily treated by vaginal pessaries and cream. It may recur throughout pregnancy but usually has no long standing effects on the pregnancy.

Birth Pan and Role of a DouCa

Childbirth is not just about the delivery of a baby. It is also a very special experience for both mum and dad. Many women appreciate having choices in their childbirth and a birth plan is a good way of communicating these choices to your obstetrician. It is best to discuss your birth plan with your obstetrician well ahead of time. What is a Birth Plan A birth plan is not a contract. It is a platform for communication between your partner, care givers and you. It is important that you know what the reasons are and what the implications your alternative choices will have on you and your baby. You should indicate your wishes to your obstetrician, midwives and delivery suite staff when you go into labor. Sometimes, it is useful to discuss your options with your obstetrician during the antenatal consultation. Some women will discuss their birth plans with their doctors although birth plans are not common practices here. It is also important to appreciate that the process of childbirth can...

Induction of La6or IOL

Only with trust, faith, and support can the woman allow the birth experience to enlighten and empower her. You may have heard this term many times, but do you know what it means Induction of labor (IOL) is any medical intervention performed that stimulates the onset of labor pains (i.e. to establish labor), aiming to result in the delivery of the baby vaginally (see Chapter 35).

Becoming a Parent

The Emotional Journey Through Pregnancy and Childbirth Becoming a parent the emotional journey through pregnancy and childbirth Jackie Ganley. p. cm. (Family matters) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-470-86090-1 (pbk. alk. paper) 1. Pregnancy Psychological aspects. 2. Childbirth Psychological aspects. 3. Mothers Psychology. I. Title. II. Family matters (John Wiley & Sons) RG560.G366 2004 155.6 '463 dc22

Book Reviews

The New Art and Science of Pregnancy and Childbirth is very well written by experienced obstetricians who together have many decades of collective experience in the care of thousands of women through their pregnancies. They are clearly cognisant of all the fears and anxieties that every pregnant woman faces and the answers to these are found in the pages of this book. I'm sure this book will help make this special period in a woman's life even more enjoyable. I would highly recommend this book to all women. The New Art and Science of Pregnancy and Childbirth demystifies the myriad of queries, concerns, worries and myths related to pregnancy from the stage of planning for pregnancy, through the course of pregnancy and delivery into the postnatal period. The information is expertly presented in a clear and concise manner, from a local perspective, allowing couples to obtain a realistic expectation of how their pregnancy will progress. The book is well organised such that it can either...

Hepatitis B Screen

This infection can be transmitted to the baby during the birth process. An immunization regime can be started for your baby to reduce this chance of transmission and help prevent your baby from being affected. This minimizes the chance of them developing liver dysfunction and cancer in later years.

How common is it

Research has shown that as many as 10 to 16 per cent of women are depressed during pregnancy (Kumar and Robson, 1984 Johanson et al., 2000 Evans et al., 2001).There is often debate about whether depression is more common during pregnancy or post-natally, and whether depression at either time is any different than depression that women experience at other points in their lives. Clearly, there are many factors common to depression throughout the life cycle. However, this shouldn't deter researchers from trying to understand which particular aspects of pregnancy and childbirth trigger emotional problems, nor should it deter individuals from understanding which unique aspects of their experience of pregnancy and childbirth have led them to experience emotional difficulties.

Hospital birth

The vast majority of women today give birth in hospital. This trend grew in the twentieth century to the point where almost all babies were delivered in hospital but is beginning to change with growing numbers of women wanting to have something different from the There may be more than one maternity unit available. If you are within a reasonable distance of more than one maternity ward, you might like to look around both and decide which feels best or which offers the things that are important to you. The hospital midwives may be able to offer different types of delivery, for example, there may be facilities for a water birth on the labour ward. The service may be able to offer a 'domino' birth domiciliary-in-and-out delivery. This involves the midwife joining you at home and assessing the progress of the labour and then going in to hospital with you for the delivery. Then if all is well, you can return home six or so hours after delivery. In practice, this type of service may not be...

Caesarean section

If we want more women to go through labour, then also the right type of services need to be available. Hospitals currently cannot provide the level of staffing that would allow more women to choose home birth, domino delivery or have continuity of care so that they are delivered by a midwife involved in their ante-natal care. Research shows that the poorer the quality of care, the longer the labour and the greater need for intervention. If women have less personal and less than adequate care, it seems far more likely that intervention will occur. In these less than perfect clinical situations, the fear of litigation probably makes early intervention more likely too.

Jennys story

Jenny gave birth to her daughter Imogen at 32 weeks following an emergency Caesarean section. This was her first baby and she had had a reasonably uneventful pregnancy until her waters broke unexpectedly. She went into hospital where the doctors became concerned about her health and that of the baby and therefore the delivery was carried out. Jenny said that she had been completely unprepared for the birth of the baby. She had left everything until she had planned to start maternity leave at 36 weeks. Her mother, who lived abroad, had planned to come over and support her around the birth but she did not arrive until the baby was a week old. The baby was in Special Care for eight weeks and Jenny and her husband felt their introduction to parenthood was like 'caring for a sick relative'. It was hard to feel connected to this tiny baby that Jenny said seemed so unlike a baby. She found the hours in the hospital a relentless stress followed by a

What causes it

Giving birth is such an all-encompassing experience it can be physically and psychologically strenuous or sometimes traumatic, you have to learn to look after your baby, accept a totally new routine, deal with feeding anxieties and come to terms with a whole new identity. This process is obviously unique for every parent and consequently we should concentrate on the individual difficulties that the new mother is experiencing rather than looking for a single explanation.

Davinas story

Davina and Mike had been very excited about the arrival of their baby, which they had planned to have at home. Davina had been healthy throughout pregnancy and in her job as a solicitor was used to being in control of what was happening to her. She had read a lot about home births and felt prepared. Davina, however, did not go into labour spontaneously and eventually agreed to come into hospital to be induced. Despite a lot of pain and anguish Davina's labour did not progress and despite attempts to speed up the contractions after 24 hours the baby became distressed and had to be delivered by Caesarean

Feeding on demand

Also for the mother who is struggling with becoming a parent, the idea of imposing some structure must be very appealing. Currently the best-selling book for new parents is The New Contented Little Baby Book (Ford, 2002). This recommends a routine for feeding and sleeping right from birth and its success perhaps reflects a shift away from demand feeding. So how are mothers supposed to decide what is right

Clare and Ians story

Clare had worked as a nanny since leaving school, loved children and couldn't wait to start a family of her own. Her husband Ian was perhaps less enthusiastic but he wanted what Clare wanted. At 25 Clare gave birth to a baby boy, Edward,, and initially all was well. She received a great deal of help from her mother and in fact often stayed overnight there as Ian was a shift-worker and Clare didn't like being alone with the baby. When Clare came for help, she did so extremely reluctantly. She initially said that she had just been having a bad day when she had seen the GP who referred her, and really she was fine. She said she had been tearful at the time because she was having terrible problems with breast-feeding. When she began to speak about this, she was instantly in floods of tears and remained so throughout our meeting. She had stopped breast-feeding because of an infection in her breast, which she perceived to be a terrible failure, especially as she had always felt critical of...

Selfhelp

The emphasis of this book has been about being aware and informed and, therefore, trying to prevent problems developing. However, if you do feel you are not coping or feeling fed-up with things you may find that Chapter 8 of this book 'Dealing with anxiety and depression' helps you to understand and approach the problem slightly differently. Part of getting rid of depression is about identifying what the actual problems are that you face and what the emotions, thoughts and feelings are that are holding you back from changing your situation. There are many problems that you usually cannot solve for yourself ill health, poverty, poor housing, violence in another person or marital breakdown. There are always things that you can do to improve your situation but unfortunately depression doesn't let you think like that. Isolation is not good for new mothers but depression tells you 'I'm too fed-up to go anywhere new'. Organisations such as the National Childbirth Trust (NCT) provide...

Opioid Injections

The commonest opioid used for labor pain control is pethidine. The midwife upon request usually injects it into the muscles of the thigh. Each injection takes about 15 minutes for onset of effect and provides two to three hours of pain relief. However, it cannot be given when the baby is about to be delivered (usually at least 4 hours before delivery and is limited to situations when the cervix is < 6 cm dilated), as it can Epidural analgesia (EA) is one of the most reliable and effective ways to relieve labor pain. Pain relief is achieved by the injection of local anesthetic drugs through a small tube into the epidural space within the backbone canal performed by a trained anesthetist. Although EA CSEA reduces labor pain to a great extent, some degree of pain may still be felt, especially at the time of pushing of the baby.

Also available as a printed book

Doctors or midwives carry out an examination of all newborn infants within 24-48 hours of life. The purpose of the examination is to exclude major congenital abnormalities and reassure the parents that their baby is healthy. Examination of the Newborn provides a practical, step-by-step guide for midwives and other practitioners undertaking this role. It also encourages the reader to view each mother and baby as unique, taking into account their experiences preconceptually, antenatally and through childbirth. Examination of the Newborn covers

Whats New in This Edition

Writing this book was very much like giving birth to a baby. It took a lot of planning, discovering, labor, and love and resulted in tremendous pride and joy for the two of us. However, it has now been four years since the birth of our second edition of Pregnancy For Dummies, and we felt it was time for another go-round. Medicine, and specifically the field of obstetrics, is changing constantly. In order to keep up with the latest trends and medical news, we have updated and revised the information for this third edition.

Conventions Used in This Book

We also realize that obstetricians aren't the only health professionals who help women through pregnancy. (See Chapter 2 for specific descriptions of the many kinds of professionals who can play a major role in helping women through pregnancy and childbirth.) That is why, in many cases, we refer to your pregnancy professional as your practitioner. In some cases, we do specify doctor, but usually only when we describe a situation that clearly calls for the services of a physician.

13 Reproductive stages

Primordial germ cells arc present in the embtyo at about 1 month after the first day of the last menstruation. They originate from the yolksac-entoderm outside the embtyo. and migrate into the undifferentiated primordia of gonads located at the medio-ventral surface of the urogenital ridges. They subsequently differentiate into oogonia and oocytes, or into spermatogonia. The oocytes in postnatal life are at an arrested stage of the meiotic division. This division is restarted much later after birth, shortly before ovulation, and is finalized after fertilization with the expulsion of the polar bodies. Thus, all-female germ cells develop prcnatally and no germ cells are formed afterbirth. Moreover, during a female lifespan approximately 400 oocytes undergo ovulation. All these facts make it possible to state that an 8-weeks' pregnant mother of an unborn female is already prepared to be a grandmother

Delivery Without Drugs

Studies have shown that the perception of pain in childbirth can be reduced when women know what to expect, have confidence in themselves and their health care providers, have loved ones at hand, and have the support and encouragement of skilled labor assistants such as midwives or doulas. Pain-management techniques without drugs include relaxation and breathing exercises, as taught in many childbirth classes hypnosis or self-hypnosis massage counterpressure changes of position and immersion in warm water. In many cases, a woman needs to start learning and practicing these techniques months or weeks before she gives birth.

Subcourse Md0921 Obstetric And Newborn Care I Introduction

Obstetrics is the branch of medicine concerned with the management of childbirth. The ultimate goal of all workers in the field of obstetrics is to assist a mother to produce a healthy baby, with a minimum of danger and discomfort to both. Pregnancy is defined as the condition of being with child. To understand pregnancy, we must know how it begins, how the fetus grows in the uterus, and how it affects the mother.

Forceps or Vacuum Extraction

Increased likelihood of jaundice in the infant. The mother may be more likely to have injury to the birth canal and perineum with forceps than with a vacuum extraction or a spontaneous birth. A local anesthetic is used in most cases, but some require regional or general anesthesia. If a forceps or vacuum extraction fails, the obstetrician should be prepared to do a cesarean.

Prenatal Care To Reduce Psychosocial And Environmental Risk

Domestic violence, in addition to jeopardizing maternal and fetal physical well-being, generates stress and anxiety in pregnant women. Evaluations of the effectiveness of prenatal care have generally focused on the biological and physiologic aspects of pregnancy, but the psychosocial environment also may have a significant impact on pregnancy outcome as well as maternal and familial welfare. Thus, prenatal care offers an opportunity to attempt to decrease psychosocial stressors. By assessing the need for and then offering social supports, from classes that help women prepare for childbirth and those that provide health education to referrals to social service agencies and programs such as Women, Infants and Children, providers may have a substantial impact on not only the biological outcome of pregnancy but also the health and happiness of an entire family. For example, childbirth education classes have been shown to diminish maternal anxiety and the need for medication and other...

If Theres a Problem at Birth

Sometimes, however, birth defects are not detected before birth, or the baby may suffer a complication during birth, such as meconium aspiration a potentially serious condition that occurs when the baby has a bowel movement while still in the uterus and inhales some of it with his first breath. And most cases of prematurity are also unexpected.

32 physiological changes in pregnancy

Activity in the second and third trimesters 12 . There is a link between strenuous physical activity and the development of intrauterine growth restriction in the presence of dietary restrictions. Mothers with physically demanding and repetitive jobs were reported in several studies to deliver early and give birth to small-for-gestational-age infants 13-15 meanwhile, other studies on vigorous exercise found no difference 16 or an increase 17 in infant birth weight. It appears that infant birth weight is not affected by exercise if energy intake is adequate 18 , and that fetal weight can be maintained with adequate nutritional intake.

The Chinese viewpoint on preconceptual care

Eastern thinking has always maintained that a woman should take special care of herself during her periods and after childbirth. She should avoid heavy physical work and overexposure to cold and damp. This care extends not just to physical considerations but to her diet and emotional state as well

218 Pethidine meperidine

The safety and efficacy of the different strategies for labor analgesia have been discussed extensively in the literature during the last decade. There arc reports claiming that systemically administered pethidine (and other opioids) lack analgesic effectiveness for labor pain, but serve primarily to sedate the mother and, inadvertently, the neonate (Reynolds 1997, Olofsson 1996). Other strategies discussed include paracervical block, spinal blockade and epidural analgesia with local anesthetics or opioids. Combinations of epidural with parenteral analgesia and of epidural with spinal analgesia are also used (Eberle 1996). Epidural analgesia seems to be very effective in reducing pain during labor, but may also have some adverse effects.

States Rejecting Abstinenceonly Funding

All those influences have driven Congress and the Bush administration to push abstinence-only education. The government has provided states a billion dollars during the past decade for abstinence-only programs. But many say it just doesn't work, and they point to the teen birth rate's first rise in 15 years as proof. I have seen hundreds of news and interest-group presentations like this, and I still wonder Is this a joke How could the teen birth rate's first rise in 15 years that is, 14 years of massive decline followed by a tiny increase only among older teen girls and their mostly-20-age male partners constitute proof of anything How did teenagers who got pregnant in 2005 and 2006 anticipate Britney's sister's 2007 pregnancy Do America's experts, politicians, news reporters, editors, and other commentators seriously believe that black teens living in South Bronx, Hispanic adolescents in California's migrant camps, and other impoverished teens whose pregnancy and birth rates are...

Early Beliefs And Practices

During the 19th century, much of what was recommended about diet during pregnancy was based on casual observation rather than controlled studies. Because little information was available on the nutrient composition of foods or their biological value, dietary advice was influenced by beliefs that obvious physical properties of different foods could produce specific effects on the mother or the child. These beliefs were often colored by the emotional and mystical aura surrounding the pregnant state. For example, pregnant women were sometimes forbidden to eat salty, acidic, or sour foods for fear the infant would be born with a sour disposition. Eggs were sometimes restricted because of their association with reproductive function. Certain foods were encouraged for their presumed beneficial effects. Pregnant women were often advised to eat broths, warm milk, and ripe fruits to soothe the fetus and ease the birth process.

Fetal Risk Summary

Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is used for the treatment of primary or secondary hyperuricemias, such as those occurring in gout or during cancer chemotherapy. Because these conditions are relatively rare in women of childbearing age, there are few reports describing the use of allopurinol during pregnancy. No adverse fetal outcomes attributable to allopurinol have been reported in humans. The manufacturer is aware of two unpublished reports of women receiving the drug during pregnancy who gave birth to normal infants (1). In a 1972 study, allopurinol produced cleft palate and skeletal defects in mice (2). However, in studies involving other animal species, no fetal harm was observed (1,3).

535Preterm Delivery Cesarean Section and Operative Complications

Cesarean section rates are higher among obese women compared to nonobese women. In Washington State, Baeten et al. 40 examined delivery data from over 96,000 mother-infant pairs. These researchers found that obese women had nearly a threefold greater risk of having a cesarean section than women who were not obese. After adjusting for gestational hypertension, GDM, and preeclampsia, the risk decreased nominally, to 2.7-fold. In another study, Brost et al. 41 found that for each 1-kg m2 increase in prepregnancy BMI, the odds of having a cesarean section increased by 7 . Obesity is associated with a reduced likelihood of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) 42 , and a lower success rate for VBAC compared with normal weight women (68 versus 79.9 , respectively 42, 43 ). Operative and postoperative complications associated with cesarean surgery in obese women, especially the morbidly obese, are many including greater risk of excessive blood loss, prolonged operative time, higher...

Lactation Consultants

Lactation consultants, or LCs, teach couples about breast-feeding and help solve problems that may arise. They may be nurses, nutritionists, childbirth educators, midwives, or lay people with training. Some work out of hospitals or childbirth centers some are affiliated with pediatric practices some have independent practices or work for lactation centers. The most widely recognized credential is certification as an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (abbreviated I.B.C.L.C. after the person's name). Usually, hospital staff or your child's doctor can recommend a lactation consultant, or you can get names from the International Lactation Consultant Association, (919) 787-5181. Ask about a consultant's training and experience. If your child's doctor refers you to a consultant, it may improve the chances that your insurance will cover it, but don't count on it.

Micrognathia Infant Pictures

Baby Born With Single Central Incisor

Sucking blisters (sucking calluses) on the lips are present in the newborn infant. From birth, the lips show a sharp line of demarcation where the skin meets the mucosa. The mucosa is slightly elevated, moist, glistening deep red or purple and ends abruptly with the skin which forms one-third of the visible lip. The term sucking calluses is a misnomer because they are not callosities due to pressure or friction. They have been seen at their most florid in infants who have never sucked (for example those with congenital heart disease). Efficient sucking requires a complete seal of the lips around the nipple, hence the development of these calluses.

Breast Feeding Summary

Amiodarone is excreted into human breast milk (2,3,8,9). The drug contains about 75 mg of iodine 200-mg dose (2,3,5). One woman, consuming 400 mg day, had milk levels of amiodarone and its metabolite, desethylamiodarone (activity unknown), determined at varying times between 9 and 63 days after delivery (2). Levels of the two substances in milk were highly variable during any 24-hour period. Peak levels of amiodarone and the metabolite ranged from 3.6-16.4 pg mL and 1.3-6.5 pg mL. The milk plasma (M P) ratio of the active drug at 9 weeks postpartum ranged from 2.3 to 9.1 and that of desethylamiodarone from 0.8 to 3.8. The authors calculated that the nursing infant received about 1.4-1.5 mg kg day of active drug. Plasma levels of amiodarone in the infant remained constant at 0.4 pg mL (about 25 of maternal plasma) from birth to 63 days. In a second case, a mother taking 200 mg day did not breast-feed, but milk levels of the drug and the metabolite on the 2nd and 3rd days after delivery...

Jones And Bartlett Publishers

Counseling the Nursing Mother A Lactation Consultant's Guide, Third Edition, Lauwers Shinskie Impact of Birthing Practices on Breastfeeding Protecting the Mother and Baby Continuum, Kroeger with Smith The Lactation Consultant in Private Practice The ABCs of Getting Started, Smith Reclaiming Breastfeeding for the United States Protection, Promotion and Support, Cadwell

Maternal and paternal factors associated with fetal growth

The problem of maternal diabetes and the increased population risk of obesity is becoming a greater problem not only in the developed areas of the world but also in developing countries with large populations and high birth rates. Because the increased risk of diabetes and obesity is now becoming manifest in adolescents and even children as young as 2-5 years,1 the concept of in utero fetal programming assumes even more importance. Fetal programming is the effect of the in utero environment on events which have a permanent effect the organism's physiology or metabolism. In this chapter we will review normal fetal growth, fetal growth in infants of women with diabetes and fetal growth in infants of obese women.

Types of Baby Bottles

Typically, bottles come in four-ounce and eight-ounce sizes. If you are bottle-feeding from birth, you'll probably want four to six of the small bottles and six to ten of the larger ones. Or, to economize, you can use the big bottles from the start, but put in just a few ounces of formula at first. Each size can be found in three versions

Stomach strengthening exercises

Pelvic floor exercises help strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor which come under great strain in pregnancy and childbirth. The pelvic floor consists of layers of muscles which stretch like a supportive hammock from the pubic bone (in front) to the end of the backbone. If your pelvic floor muscles are weak, you may find that you leak urine when you cough or sneeze. This is quite common and you needn't feel embarrassed.

Speaking of pregnancy competing truthclaims

Rowlandson

There have been several historical studies of the emergence of the man-midwife, or accoucheur, in the eighteenth century and of the gradual supplanting of the female midwife, first in upper-class and then in middle-class households.1 However, the main focus of such accounts has been the struggle over the management of childbirth and the use - and alleged abuse - of obstetric instruments. The debate between midwives and accoucheurs over the management of pregnancy has received less attention. This debate involved not only practice, but also hermeneutics indeed, the key issues were epistemo-logical. How could pregnancy be known, and who had the authority to speak of it One of the fiercest exchanges in this respect was between William Smellie and Elizabeth Nihell. The picture is interestingly complicated here in that the quarrel took place, at least in part, by proxy. Elizabeth Nihell's Treatise on the Art of Midwifery was thought by many to have been written by her husband, while...

Abnormal glucose tolerance test as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome

To determine the predictive value of a negative GCT in subsequent pregnancies, Nahum62 studied 62 pregnancies of women who had given birth during the past 4 years for whom third-trimester 1-h, 50-g glucose screening test results were available for both pregnancies. He found that the GCT results were significantly correlated between the two pregnancies (r 0.49, P < 0.001) and concluded that a negative GCT of < 140mg dL during pregnancy is strongly predictive of a negative screening result in a succeeding pregnancy within 4 years.

248 Dopamine antagonists

Controls, although the metoclopramide group had a significantly higher rate of premature births (8.1 vs 2.4 ) (Berkovitch 2002). No adverse birth outcomes (birth weight, major malformations, preterm delivery) were found in a study of 309 women, identified from the Danish Medical Birth Registry, exposed to metoclopramide during the first trimester of pregnancy (Sorcnsen 2000).

Congenital malformations

Schaefer-Graf et al.,66 in a review of 4180 pregnancies complicated by GDM (n 3764) or Type 2 DM (n 416), reported that the congenital anomalies in the offspring affected the same organ systems described in pregnancies complicated by Type 1 DM. The risk of anomalies rose with increasing hyperglycemia at diagnosis or presentation for care. However, most other reports had conflicting findings. Bartha et al.64 failed to find an increase in major congenital malformations associated with GDM, as did Kalter67 in a comprehensive review of the literature. An exception is the recent Swedish Health Registry study covering over 1.2 million births between 1987 and 1997.68 The authors identified 3864 infants born to women with pre-existing diabetes and 8688 infants born to women with GDM. The total malformation rate in the first group was 9.5 and in the second group 5.7 , similar to the rate in the general population. However, the GDM group was characterized by an excess of certain malformations,...

Neill Epperson and Jennifer Ballew

Postpartum depression (PPD) or, simply, postpartum are the most commonly used lay terms for describing major depressive disorder occurring in the postnatal period. Whether the disorder occurs de novo, is a relapse of a previous depressive episode, or has its origin in the antepartum period, depression after childbirth is associated with significant maternal and infant morbidity and, in worst cases, mortality. With most epidemiological studies demonstrating a prevalence of 10-13 , PPD is one of the most common complications of childbirth (1,2). Yet, the pathogenesis, natural history, and treatment of the disorder have been shrouded in mystery and myth as society and science has imbued motherhood with a cloak of sanctity that cuts both ways. Attempts to protect mothers and their offspring from unnecessary intrusions or potential harm have unwittingly limited detection of PPD in the clinical setting and the investigation of its pathogenesis and treatment in the scientific arena.

2 Biological Underpinnings Of Postpartum Mood Disorders

Why me Why now are questions commonly asked by women suffering from postpartum mental illness, particularly those who have never previously experienced a serious psychiatric disturbance. Although according to the DSM-IV, PPD is not diagnostically distinct from MDD that is not childbirth-related (24), the hormonal milieu of pregnancy and the puerperium is so unique that investigators have focused on these hormonal changes as key factors in the pathogenesis of PPD. Several recent and thorough reviews of the relationship between PPD and endocrine function have been published (18,43). Tables 3-6 provide an overview of the findings from studies focused primarily on the relationship between ovarian, adrenal, and thyroid hormones and postpartum mood disorders. Finally, the vast majority of parturient women (93 ) have blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function for weeks if not months following childbirth (72), secondary to profound increases in corticotropin-releasing hormone...

The Fifties The Teen Pregnancy Decade

Teenage pregnancy and motherhood peaked in the 1950s amid the postwar Baby Boom, when nearly 1 in 10 girls age 15 to 19 gave birth every year and nearly half of all new brides in the country were under age 20. That four-fifths of these were legitimized by often-short-lived marriages did not cover up the high rates of high schoolers' sex. Notions that the past was more moral what one sociologist historian called the myth of an abstinent past were belied by cold statistics of the time, which were much less complete than those tabulated by today's more sophisticated surveillance systems. Sociologist Phillips Cutright's 1972 study in Family Planning Perspectives found the mysterious disappearance of staggering numbers of pregnancies originally reported by physicians in the 1940s and 1950s, suggesting high abortion and other fetal loss rates.11

Is there an associated increased adverse outcome in GDM

The infants of GDM women are at an increased risk for stillbirth and aberrant fetal growth (macrosomia and growth restriction) as well as metabolic (e.g. hypoglycemia and hypocal-cemia), hematological (e.g. bilirubinemia and polycythemia) and respiratory complications that increase neonatal intensive care unit admission rates and birth trauma (e.g. shoulder dystocia)19,20 (Table 14.1). The adverse outcomes most commonly associated with GDM include increased perinatal mortality, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, pre-eclampsia, Cesarean section, neonatal hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and polycythemia. In addition, there are long-term effects Clinicians must, therefore, consider the merits of establishing the diagnosis of GDM. Gestational diabetes, if untreated or not recognized, may be associated with an increased risk of intrauterine fetal death and commonly reported morbidities such as macrosomia, birth trauma, neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia,...

Multiple pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus

By contrast, using data derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, Egeland and Irgens,33 controlling for other risk factors such as advanced age, parity, maternal history of diabetes and the woman's own birthweight, found GDM in 6.6 per 1000 multiple pregnancies (n 9271) and in 5.0 per 1000 singleton pregnancies (n 640,700) (OR 1.3, 95 CI 1.0-1.7, P 0.03). However, analyses stratified by maternal age or parity yielded no elevated risk of GDM. Others have also failed to demonstrate a higher prevalence of GDM in multiple pregnancies.34,35

82scope of teen pregnancy

Data from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) underline a decline in 2004 in the teenage birth rate in the US, with 41.2 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years 11 . Rates increased slightly in 2004 for girls aged 10-14 years 11 . These data are worrisome, as these young women are nearer to menarche, and still growing themselves, with increased nutritional needs. These very young women also have increased risk for maternal death 12 . The younger-aged group received the lowest rate of timely prenatal care, highest rates of late or no prenatal care, and was at highest risk of pregnancy-associated hypertension. Among the youngest cohort, pregnancy outcome was poor, e.g., infants were more likely to be preterm, to be born with low birth weight, and to die in their first year at a rate that was three times the overall rate of 15.4 per 1,000 13 .

Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

Retrospective cohort study on 11 1,563 deliveries between 1991 and 1997 in 39 hospitals in Canada Average prevalence of GDM was 2.5 (2755 cases of GDM vs. 108,664 normal controls) Medical Birth Registry of Norway study of all women born between 1967 and 1984 who gave birth between 1988 and 1998 (n 141,107), excluding 2393 non-singleton pregnancies 126 pregnant women with GDM, 84 with IGT and 294 with normal glucose tolerance Retrospective analysis of data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway for all women born between 1967 and 1984, who gave birth between 1988 and 1998, the authors identified 498 women aged < 32 years with GDM in one or more singleton pregnancies. They found that the women whose mothers had had diabetes during pregnancy were at increased risk of GDM themselves. Significant inverse trends in diabetes were noted in relation to birth-weight, with an increased risk of GDM of 80, 60 and 40 in women whose birthweights were < 2500, 2500-2999 and 3000-3499 g,...

45 Inadequate Prenatal Care

The lack of motivation and self-esteem associated with depression during pregnancy may lead to inadequate prenatal care because depressed women are known not to seek out prenatal care until well into their pregnancies (62). Previous studies have found that women with psychiatric disorders attend fewer than 50 of prenatal care appointments (62). A cohort study of almost 10.6 million births found a relative risk (RR) of 2.8 for preterm birth in Caucasian women with inadequate prenatal care compared to women with prenatal care throughout their pregnancies (63). Additionally, these researchers additionally found an

Pregnancy and diabetes before the discovery of insulin

The collection of vital statistics first became available at varying times in the developed Western countries. The Scandinavian countries were first (Sweden 1749, Denmark 1801), England and Wales followed (1838) and then Russia (1867) although the process was initiated in the USA in 1880 it was not complete until 1933.8 Fertility rates have varied as much as death rates and migration in different countries, so that population dynamics will have a considerable effect on reported statistics for a single condition such as diabetes in pregnancy. The classical Malthusian checks on death rate - disease, famine and war - and the effects of celibacy and restraint on birth rate, will have more effect on the overall outcome statistics of pregnancy in diabetic mothers than the diabetes itself. The general fertility rate for England and Wales was about 130 live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 44 in 1840, but is now only half

2 Prevalence Of Perinatal Anxiety Disorders

The prevalence ofperinatal anxiety disorders ranges widely from study to study (8.7-30 ) (5-7). One explanation for this diversity is that the screening and diagnostic instruments used in these studies varied in sensitivity. A second reason for the variability in findings is that the studies assessed women at different time points. Recently, Wenzel and colleagues (8) conducted a comprehensive investigation ofthe prevalence ofpostpar-tum anxiety disorders. They administered a standardized clinical interview to a community sample of147 women approx 8 wk after giving birth and found that the most common forms of clinical and subsyndromal postpartum anxiety problems were generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (19.7 ) and social anxiety (15.0 ). About half of the women meeting criteria for an anxiety (or depressive) disorder reported a postpartum onset of these symptoms. Moreover, the overall rates of postpartum anxiety disorders were higher than that of postpartum depression (PPD)....

Checking In Prenatal Visits

In the second trimester, you're likely to see your practitioner about once every four weeks. At each visit, he checks your weight, your blood pressure, your urine, and the fetal heart rate. You may want to bring up any questions you have about fetal movement, childbirth classes, your weight gain, and any unusual symptoms or discomforts you may have.

Glucose alterations in gestational diabetes mellitus

To the delivery of a large baby, mainly both maternal perineal damage and birth trauma, including shoulder dystocia, Erbs palsy, etc. The hyperinsulinism remains in the newborn period and increases the risk of hypoglycemia, once the umbilical supply of glucose is suddenly arrested after delivery. Because of this process, the newborn will need frequent monitorization of blood glucose, early feeds and occasionally may require the intravenous administration of glucose. Hypoglycemia in the newborn, if not corrected, may lead to brain damage.41 Fetal macrosomia also increases the risk of obesity, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases later on in life.42,43

Antenatal care explained

Left occipito-anterior, right occipito-anterior (this indicates the position of the back of the baby's head during its descent down the birth canal). LOL, ROL. Left occipito-lateral, right occipito-lateral. LOP, ROP. Left occipito-posterior, right occipito-posterior.

97changes in behaviors

Postpartum depression (PPD) requires assessment in women with AN or BN as this mood disorder is tightly linked to eating disorders 64, 65 . While most studies report an increased incidence of PPD in women with AN or BN 24, 57, 64, 65 , one study reported fewer symptoms of depression in women with treated BN who delivered infants compared to women with treated BN who had not given birth 66 .

Keeping Fit During Pregnancy

Always check with your doctor before you begin any physical activity to make sure that it's safe for you to exercise during your pregnancy. Some questions have been raised about the effects of exercise on pregnant women, but there is no proof that gentle exercise has any negative effects. Studies have not shown any benefits for the baby, but exercise might help you feel better and maintain your weight. Exercise also helps prepare a woman for childbirth by strengthening the muscles and increasing vitality, and it will be much easier to get back into shape after the baby has been born. If you don't have any serious medical problems and you have an uncomplicated pregnancy, it is probably safe for you to do some exercising. Preterm labor (A typical full-term pregnancy lasts 37 to 42 weeks, calculated from the first day of your last menstrual period to childbirth. Preterm labor, or premature labor, is the early onset of uterine contractions before 37 weeks, but after 20 weeks of pregnancy.)

Pregnancy rashes and itches

The only surefire way to make PUPP go away is to deliver. Some women tell y JL us that the itching goes away within hours of giving birth. If delivery is still (oj weeks away, it sometimes helps to bathe in a solution of colloidal oatmeal (Aveeno makes a good one). Skin lotions containing Benadryl can also help, but these products can sometimes dry the skin, which only makes the itching worse. Some women get relief from taking Benadryl orally, but check with your doctor before doing so. Finally, in very severe cases (which are rare), the doctor may prescribe a short-term course of steroids or other medications.

Fetal complications of maternal hyperglycemia

Uncontrolled hyperglycemia primarily affects fetal growth on both extremes of the normal growth curve. In those diabetic mothers that have advanced vascular disease, fetal growth deceleration may occur due to placental insufficiency. Fetal growth deceleration is defined as those in lower 5th percentile on a growth curve adjusted for gestational age.18,19 Macrosomia defined as an absolute birthweight of greater than 4000-g or greater than the 90th percentile (adjusted for gender, ethnicity, and gestational age). Cesarean sections often must be performed when the baby is at term to reduce the risk of birth trauma such as Erb's palsy or Klumpke's paralysis.20 Cesarean sections also adds risk to the mother's health. As explained by the Pederson hypothesis,21 the effects of an intrauterine environment of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia include hypoglycemia, organ developmental problems (especially gastrointestinal), erythrocytosis, iron redistribution, calcium and magnesium...

Acute and chronic back ache and sciatica

Treatment continued with fortnightly appointments and I added in SP-8, the empirical point of vessels, and BL-20 to her treatments, which now lasted 45 minutes. The vulval veins began to reduce and the leg veins, although prominent throughout her pregnancy, caused much less pain. Sasha gave birth to a healthy girl at 38 weeks.

Going back to school Classes to take

In order to prepare yourself for labor, you may want to consider taking some birthing classes to find out about breathing, relaxation, and massage techniques that help alleviate the fear, anxiety, and pain associated with labor. Today, a great majority of first-time expectant parents attend childbirth classes. Childbirth education has dramatically changed the average woman's experience of labor and delivery. Today's birthing experience is a far cry from the middle part of the last century, when women were knocked out with anesthesia for the delivery and the expectant father's only job was to pace around the waiting room like Ricky Ricardo anticipating the arrival of Little Ricky. As you look toward your labor, you need to have a basic understanding of the different types of birthing methods in order to determine which classes may be right for you. The following is a primer on different birthing methods Lamaze Developed in the 1940s by Dr. Fernand Lamaze, a French obstetrician, this...

2112 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs

Most of those studies were performed with relatively small numbers of pregnancies four studies report on larger numbers. Hallberg (2005) summarized the data available from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, which gives information on 4291 children born to mothers exposed to SSRIs (citalopram n 1696, fluoxetine n 574, paroxetine n 708, sertraline n 1067) in early pregnancy. The reported incidence of congenital malformations was 2.9 , which does not differ from the expected rate among unexposed infants. Malm (2005) performed a population-based study of 1782 women exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy, 1398 of them in the first trimester (citalopram n 554, fluoxetine n 525, fluvoxamine n 65, paroxetine n 152, sertraline n 18). Congenital malformations were not more common in the SSR1 group when compared with the control group. Major malformations were more common in women exposed to fluoxetine in the first trimester, but

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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