Breast Feeding Summary

Small amounts of cefotetan are excreted into human breast milk (5,6). A 1982 reference reported milk levels ranging from 0.22 to 0.34 pg mL 1-6 hours after a 1-g IV dose (5). In six women treated with cefotetan 1 g IM every 12 hours, mean milk levels 4-10 hours after a dose varied from 0.29 to 0.59 pg mL (6). No accumulation in the milk was observed as evidenced by a steady milk plasma ratio. The mean ratio 10 hours after the first dose was 0.05 compared to 0.07, 10 hours after the fifth dose....

Risk Factors

Risk Factors (A, B, C, D, X) have been assigned to all drugs, based on the level of risk the drug poses to the fetus. Risk Factors are designed to help the reader quickly classify a drug for use during pregnancy. They do not refer to breast feeding risk. Because they tend to oversimplify a complex topic, they should always be used in conjunction with the Fetal Risk Summary. The definitions for the Factors are those used by the Food and Drug Administration (Federal Register 1980 44 37434-67)....

Conception During Breast Feeding References

Jacobus Pharmaceutical, 2000. 2. Heinonen OP, Slone D, Shapiro S. Birth Defects and Drugs in Pregnancy. Littleton, MA Publishing Sciences Group, 1977 299. 3. Varpela E. On the effect exerted by first line tuberculosis medicines on the foetus. Acta Tuberc Scand 1964 35 53-69. 4. Lowe CR. Congenital defects among children born to women under supervision or treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. Br J Prev Soc Med 1964 18 14-6. 5. Wilson EA, Thelin TJ, Ditts PV....

Fetal Risk Summary

Azatadine is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits given doses much higher than human doses (1). Published reports of exposure during human pregnancy have not been located. (See also Diphenhydramine for representative agent in this class.) In a surveillance study of Michigan Medicaid recipients involving 229,101 completed pregnancies conducted between 1985 and 1992, 127 newborns had been exposed to azatadine during the 1st trimester (F. Rosa, personal communication, FDA, 1993). A total of six...

References

Abbott Laboratories, 1996. 2. Schick B, Hom M, Librizzi R, Donnenfeld A. Pregnancy outcome following exposure to clarithromycin (abstract). Abstracts of the Ninth International Conference of the Organization of Teratology Information Services, May 2-4, 1996, Salt Lake City, Utah. Reprod Toxicol 1996 10 162. 3. Escobar LF, Weaver DD. Charge Association. In Buyse ML, ed. Birth Defects Encyclopedia. Volume 1. Dover,MA Center for Birth Defects Information Services, 1990...

Name Albendazole

Class Anthelmintic Risk Factor CM Albendazole is an orally administered, benzimidazole class, broad-spectrum anthelmintic used in the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticerosis caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. It is also active against the larval forms of Echinococcus granulosus. Plasma concentrations of albendazole are negligible or undetectable because of poor systemic absorption attributable to low water solubility and its rapid hepatic metabolism to the active...

Pregnancy and Drugs

Until the middle of the 20th century, most physicians believed that the uterus provided a protected environment for the fetus and served as a shield from the external environment. This belief was questioned in 1941 when an Australian physician, N.M. Gregg, observed that women who contracted rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy frequently gave birth to infants with specific anatomic defects, mainly in the heart, eyes, and ears. This finding forever shattered the concept held...