References

Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 6th ed. Baltimore, MD Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989 44-5. 2. Elia J, Katz IR, Simpson GM. Teratogenicity of psychotherapeutic medications. Psychopharmacol Bull 1987 23 531-86. 3. Product information. Elavil. AstraZeneca, 2000. 4. McBride WG. Limb deformities associated with iminodibenzyl hydrochloride. Med J Aust 1972 1 492. 5. Freeman R. Limb deformities possible association with drugs. Med J Aust 1972 1 606. 6. Australian Drug Evaluation...

Fetal Risk Summary

Azathioprine is used primarily in patients with organ transplants or in those with inflammatory bowel disease as an immunosuppressant. Prednisone is commonly combined with azathioprine in these patients. The drug readily crosses the placenta, and trace amounts of its active metabolite, 6-mercaptopurine, have been found in fetal blood (see also Mercaptopurine) (1). Azathioprine is teratogenic in rabbits, producing limb reduction defects after small doses, but not in mice and rats (2). The...

Breast Feeding Summary

Citalopram is excreted into human milk (.1,6,7,8. and 9). A 1997 report described breast milk concentrations of the antidepressant in two lactating women under treatment for depression and one healthy lactating volunteer (6). All three subjects were extensive metabolizers of citalopram with respect to the liver enzymes (CYP2C19 and CYP2D6) involved in the metabolism of the drug. The two women with depression were being treated with 20 mg day and 40 mg day at 2 and 4 months postpartum,...

Name Albendazole

Class Anthelmintic Risk Factor CM Albendazole is an orally administered, benzimidazole class, broad-spectrum anthelmintic used in the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticerosis caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. It is also active against the larval forms of Echinococcus granulosus. Plasma concentrations of albendazole are negligible or undetectable because of poor systemic absorption attributable to low water solubility and its rapid hepatic metabolism to the active...

Pregnancy and Drugs

Until the middle of the 20th century, most physicians believed that the uterus provided a protected environment for the fetus and served as a shield from the external environment. This belief was questioned in 1941 when an Australian physician, N.M. Gregg, observed that women who contracted rubella during the first trimester of pregnancy frequently gave birth to infants with specific anatomic defects, mainly in the heart, eyes, and ears. This finding forever shattered the concept held...