Natural Bacterial Vaginosis Treatment Ebook
This is a type of bacteria that is usually found in the vagina but is kept under control by the presence of other types of harmless bacteria that produce chemicals to keep the vagina slightly acidic. Bacterial vaginosis, caused by the overgrowth of these bacteria, can cause abnormal vaginal odor and discharge. It is common in pregnancy and has been found to be associated with a higher risk of preterm delivery and rupture of the membranes. This can be easily treated with antibiotics, either orally or inserted into the vagina.
Because the largest single contributor to the problem of low birth weight is preterm delivery, a great deal of effort has been made to identify women at greatest risk for this complication. Investigators such as Papiernik-Berkhauer (71) and, later, Creasy (72), developed scoring systems based on risk factors such as those listed in Table 1-5 to predict preterm births. More recent studies have looked at other risk factors including bacterial vaginosis (73), cervical length (74), and biochemical markers. Some of the most promising biochemical markers investigated thus far include maternal serum C-reactive protein (75), salivary estriol (76), and cervicovaginal human chorionic gonadotropin (77). The most attention has been focused on cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (78). Although the clinical relevance of identifying which woman is at greatest risk of preterm delivery has not been adequately elucidated, the investigation of markers such as the biochemical ones is particularly exciting...
Metronidazole is now being recommended by some investigators for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancies at high risk for preterm delivery, as a strategy to decrease this risk. For this purpose, oral therapy against possible subclinical genital upper tract infection seems to be more effective than intravaginal therapy (Dondcrs 2000, review by Jocsoef 1999). A review by Yudin confirms that vaginal treatment regimens of bacterial vaginosis arc ineffective in preventing preterm birth (Yudin 2005 see also Chapter 2.14). Nimorazole and tinidazole, both registered for the treatment of trichomonas infections, amebiasis, and bacterial vaginosis, cannot
Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy screen and treat F.ur Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999 83 1-4. Jocsoef MR, Schmid GP, Hillier SI Bacterial vaginosis review of treatment options and potential clinical indications for therapy. Clin Infect Dis 1999 28(Suppl 1) S57-65.
There is limited data on genital infections among HIV positive women7 but sexually-transmitted infection rates in sub-Saharan Africa (where the majority of UK HIV infections originate) are known to be high8. Women are therefore advised to seek regular check-ups at a genito-urinary medicine clinic, as Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and bacterial vaginosis are all associated with chorioamnionitis9,10, which may lead to premature rupture of membranes, premature delivery9,11 and an increased risk of vertical transmission of HIV. Ideally, these infections should be identified and treated before conception.
The safety, accuracy, and efficacy of amniocentesis has been studied in the United States and Europe (1,2,3,4,5 and 6). These studies concluded that the procedure is relatively safe and complications such as fetal injury and bacterial infection are extremely infrequent. The U.S. study documented that rates of fetal loss in amniocentesis and nonrandom controls were not significantly different (3.5 versus 3.2 ) (3). Amniocentesis at an earlier stage of pregnancy was reported by several groups (7,8 and 9). According to those studies, amniocentesis can be performed at 9 to 14 weeks, when 1 mL of amniotic fluid per gestational week can be withdrawn. Early amniocentesis may provide an alternative for CVS when passage through the cervical canal is not advisable because of cervical-vaginal infections or myomas. It also has an advantage over CVS in that it allows the determination of a-fetoprotein (AFP), which is important for the diagnosis of NTDs, ventral wall defects, and other...
Women become more prone to urinary and vaginal infections during and after menopause, this problem is greater in women with diabetes.40 Over the course of 2 years, women with diabetes were 1.5 times as likely to have a urinary tract infection with symptoms and twice as likely to have one without symptoms as women without diabetes were. Both risks were higher in women who took insulin and women who had had diabetes for at least 10 years.
Suspected birth defect diagnoses occurred in 6,564 offspring of 104,339 women in a retrospective analysis of women who had delivered in Michigan hospitals during 1980-1983 (6). First trimester vaginitis treatment with clotrimazole occurred in 74 of the 6,564 deliveries linked to birth defect diagnoses and in 1,012 of the 97,775 cases not linked to such diagnoses. The estimated relative risk of birth defects when clotrimazole was used was 1.09 (95 confidence interval CI 0.9-1.4). Although an increased relative risk was not found, this study could not exclude the possibility of an association with a specific birth defect (6).
Svendsen E, Lie S, Gunderson TH, Lyngstad-Vik I, Skuland J. Comparative evaluation of miconazole, clotrimazole and nystatin in the treatment of candidal vulvo-vaginitis. Curr Ther Res 1978 23 666-72. 6. Rosa FW, Baum C, Shaw M. Pregnancy outcomes after first-trimester vaginitis drug therapy. Obstet Gynecol 1987 69 751-5.
During pregnancy, your vaginal discharge normally increases substantially. Some women find that they need to wear thin panty liners every day. The discharge tends to be thin, white, and virtually odorless. Vaginal douches aren't a good idea because they may alter a woman's natural ability to fight off vaginal infections. Pregnancy doesn't prevent you from getting a vaginal infection, and the high levels of estrogen in your blood may predispose you to developing a yeast infection. A yeast infection usually produces a thick, white-yellow discharge, and it may, in some cases, cause itchiness or redness. Topical vaginal creams should solve the problem, and they pose no risk to the fetus. Most over-the-counter preparations come in 1-, 3-, and 7-day dosages and are completely safe for the baby. For hard-to-beat yeast infections, talk with your doctor about oral fluconazole, which may be used safely in pregnancy.
In women with bacterial vaginosis, the normal vaginal flora is characterized by high concentrations of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria, and a decrease in Lactobacillus species. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, such as preterm labor, preterm birth. Preterm Premature Rupture of the Outer Membranes (PPROM), chorioamnionitis, and low birth weight of the infant, especially in women with at least one other factor known to be associated with preterm delivery - in particular, cervical incompetence. Currently, treatment of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has not been proven unequivocally to be efficient in reducing the risk of preterm birth or PPROM. Results suggest that treatment of women at high risk for preterm delivery does decrease the rate of preterm birth, but this is not the case in low-risk women (Donders 1999). Oral therapy against possible subclinical upper genital tract infection appears more effective than...
This is an increase in the white or slightly gray mucoid discharge that has a faint musty odor. It is due to hyperplasia of vaginal epithelial cells of the cervix because of increased hormone level from the pregnancy. Leukorrhea is also present in vaginal infections.
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Bacterial Vaginosis Facts
This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.